Drug: Coumadin

COUMADIN (warfarin sodium) is an anticoagulant that acts by inhibiting vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors. Chemically, it is 3-(α-acetonylbenzyl)-4- hydroxycoumarin and is a racemic mixture of the R- and S-enantiomers. Crystalline warfarin sodium is an isopropanol clathrate. Its empirical formula is C19H15NaO4, and its structural formula is represented by the following: Crystalline warfarin sodium occurs as a white, odorless, crystalline powder that is discolored by light. It is very soluble in water, freely soluble in alcohol, and very slightly soluble in chloroform and ether. COUMADIN tablets for oral use also contain: All strengths: Lactose, starch, and magnesium stearate 1 mg: D&C Red No. 6 Barium Lake 2 mg: FD&C Blue No. 2 Aluminum Lake and FD&C Red No. 40 Aluminum Lake 2-1/2 mg: D&C Yellow No. 10 Aluminum Lake and FD&C Blue No. 1 Aluminum Lake 3 mg: FD&C Yellow No. 6 Aluminum Lake, FD&C Blue No. 2 Aluminum Lake, and FD&C Red No. 40 Aluminum Lake 4 mg: FD&C Blue No. 1 Aluminum Lake 5 mg: FD&C Yellow No. 6 Aluminum Lake 6 mg: FD&C Yellow No. 6 Aluminum Lake and FD&C Blue No. 1 Aluminum Lake 7-1/2 mg: D&C Yellow No. 10 Aluminum Lake and FD&C Yellow No. 6 Aluminum Lake 10 mg: Dye-free COUMADIN for injection for intravenous use is supplied as a sterile, lyophilized powder, which, after reconstitution with 2.7 mL Sterile Water for Injection, contains: Warfarin sodium 2 mg per mL Sodium phosphate, dibasic, heptahydrate 4.98 mg per mL Sodium phosphate, monobasic, monohydrate 0.194 mg per mL Sodium chloride 0.1 mg per mL Mannitol 38.0 mg per mL Sodium hydroxide, as needed for pH adjustment to 8.1 to 8.3

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The following serious adverse reactions to COUMADIN are discussed in greater detail in other sections of the labeling:
  • Hemorrhage [see BOXED WARNING, WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS, and OVERDOSAGE]
  • Necrosis of skin and other tissues [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
  • Systemic atheroemboli and cholesterol microemboli [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
Other adverse reactions to COUMADIN include:
  • Immune system disorders: hypersensitivity/allergic reactions (including urticaria and anaphylactic reactions)
  • Vascular disorders: vasculitis
  • Hepatobiliary disorders: hepatitis, elevated liver enzymes. Cholestatic hepatitis has been associated with concomitant administration of COUMADIN and ticlopidine.
  • Gastrointestinal disorders: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, taste perversion, abdominal pain, flatulence, bloating
  • Skin disorders: rash, dermatitis (including bullous eruptions), pruritus, alopecia
  • Respiratory disorders: tracheal or tracheobronchial calcification
  • General disorders: chills
Read the Coumadin (warfarin sodium) Side Effects Center for a complete guide to possible side effectsLearn More »

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Individualized Dosing The dosage and administration of COUMADIN must be individualized for each patient according to the patient's INR response to the drug. Adjust the dose based on the patient's INR and the condition being treated. Consult the latest evidence-based clinical practice guidelines from the American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP) to assist in the determination of the duration and intensity of anticoagulation with COUMADIN [see REFERENCES]. Recommended Target INR Ranges and Durations for Individual Indications An INR of greater than 4.0 appears to provide no additional therapeutic benefit in most patients and is associated with a higher risk of bleeding. Venous Thromboembolism (including deep venous thrombosis [DVT] and PE) Adjust the warfarin dose to maintain a target INR of 2.5 (INR range, 2.0-3.0) for all treatment durations. The duration of treatment is based on the indication as follows:
  • For patients with a DVT or PE secondary to a transient (reversible) risk factor, treatment with warfarin for 3 months is recommended.
  • For patients with an unprovoked DVT or PE, treatment with warfarin is recommended for at least 3 months. After 3 months of therapy, evaluate the risk-benefit ratio of long-term treatment for the individual patient.
  • For patients with two episodes of unprovoked DVT or PE, long-term treatment with warfarin is recommended. For a patient receiving long-term anticoagulant treatment, periodically reassess the risk-benefit ratio of continuing such treatment in the individual patient.
Atrial Fibrillation In patients with non-valvular AF, anticoagulate with warfarin to target INR of 2.5 (range, 2.0-3.0).
  • In patients with non-valvular AF that is persistent or paroxysmal and at high risk of stroke (i.e., having any of the following features: prior ischemic stroke, transient ischemic attack, or systemic embolism, or 2 of the following risk factors: age greater than 75 years, moderately or severely impaired left ventricular systolic function and/or heart failure, history of hypertension, or diabetes mellitus), long-term anticoagulation with warfarin is recommended.
  • In patients with non-valvular AF that is persistent or paroxysmal and at an intermediate risk of ischemic stroke (i.e., having 1 of the following risk factors: age greater than 75 years, moderately or severely impaired left ventricular systolic function and/or heart failure, history of hypertension, or diabetes mellitus), long-term anticoagulation with warfarin is recommended.
  • For patients with AF and mitral stenosis, long-term anticoagulation with warfarin is recommended.
  • For patients with AF and prosthetic heart valves, long-term anticoagulation with warfarin is recommended; the target INR may be increased and aspirin added depending on valve type and position, and on patient factors.
Mechanical and Bioprosthetic Heart Valves
  • For patients with a bileaflet mechanical valve or a Medtronic Hall (Minneapolis, MN) tilting disk valve in the aortic position who are in sinus rhythm and without left atrial enlargement, therapy with warfarin to a target INR of 2.5 (range, 2.0-3.0) is recommended.
  • For patients with tilting disk valves and bileaflet mechanical valves in the mitral position, therapy with warfarin to a target INR of 3.0 (range, 2.5-3.5) is recommended.
  • For patients with caged ball or caged disk valves, therapy with warfarin to a target INR of 3.0 (range, 2.5-3.5) is recommended.
  • For patients with a bioprosthetic valve in the mitral position, therapy with warfarin to a target INR of 2.5 (range, 2.0-3.0) for the first 3 months after valve insertion is recommended. If additional risk factors for thromboembolism are present (AF, previous thromboembolism, left ventricular dysfunction), a target INR of 2.5 (range, 2.0-3.0) is recommended.
Post-Myocardial Infarction For high-risk patients with MI (e.g., those with a large anterior MI, those with significant heart failure, those with intracardiac thrombus visible on transthoracic echocardiography, those with AF, and those with a history of a thromboembolic event), therapy with combined moderate-intensity (INR, 2.0-3.0) warfarin plus low-dose aspirin ( ≤ 100 mg/day) for at least 3 months after the MI is recommended. Recurrent Systemic Embolism and Other Indications Oral anticoagulation therapy with warfarin has not been fully evaluated by clinical trials in patients with valvular disease associated with AF, patients with mitral stenosis, and patients with recurrent systemic embolism of unknown etiology. However, a moderate dose regimen (INR 2.0-3.0) may be used for these patients. Initial and Maintenance Dosing The appropriate initial dosing of COUMADIN varies widely for different patients. Not all factors responsible for warfarin dose variability are known, and the initial dose is influenced by:
  • Clinical factors including age, race, body weight, sex, concomitant medications, and comorbidities
  • Genetic factors (CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genotypes) [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY]
Select the initial dose based on the expected maintenance dose, taking into account the above factors. Modify this dose based on consideration of patient-specific clinical factors. Consider lower initial and maintenance doses for elderly and/or debilitated patients and in Asian patients [see Use In Specific Populations and CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY]. Routine use of loading doses is not recommended as this practice may increase hemorrhagic and other complications and does not offer more rapid protection against clot formation. Individualize the duration of therapy for each patient. In general, anticoagulant therapy should be continued until the danger of thrombosis and embolism has passed. Dosing Recommendations without Consideration of Genotype If the patient's CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genotypes are not known, the initial dose of COUMADIN is usually 2 to 5 mg once daily. Determine each patient's dosing needs by close monitoring of the INR response and consideration of the indication being treated. Typical maintenance doses are 2 to 10 mg once daily. Dosing Recommendations with Consideration of Genotype Table 1 displays three ranges of expected maintenance COUMADIN doses observed in subgroups of patients having different combinations of CYP2C9 and VKORC1 gene variants [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY]. If the patient's CYP2C9 and/or VKORC1 genotype are known, consider these ranges in choosing the initial dose. Patients with CYP2C9 *1/*3, *2/*2, *2/*3, and *3/*3 may require more prolonged time ( > 2 to 4 weeks) to achieve maximum INR effect for a given dosage regimen than patients without these CYP variants. Table 1: Three Ranges of Expected Maintenance COUMADIN Daily Doses Based on CYP2C9 and VKORC1 Genotypes†
VKORC1 CYP2C9 *1/*1 *1/*2 *1/*3 *2/*2 *2/*3 *3/*3 GG 5-7 mg 5-7 mg 3-4 mg 3-4 mg 3-4 mg 0.5-2 mg AG 5-7 mg 3-4 mg 3-4 mg 3-4 mg 0.5-2 mg 0.5-2 mg AA 3-4 mg 3-4 mg 0.5-2 mg 0.5-2 mg 0.5-2 mg 0.5-2 mg † Ranges are derived from multiple published clinical studies. VKORC1 -1639G > A (rs9923231) variant is used in this table. Other co-inherited VKORC1 variants may also be important determinants of warfarin dose. Monitoring to Achieve Optimal Anticoagulation COUMADIN is a narrow therapeutic range (index) drug, and its action may be affected by factors such as other drugs and dietary vitamin K. Therefore, anticoagulation must be carefully monitored during COUMADIN therapy. Determine the INR daily after the administration of the initial dose until INR results stabilize in the therapeutic range. After stabilization, maintain dosing within the therapeutic range by performing periodic INRs. The frequency of performing INR should be based on the clinical situation but generally acceptable intervals for INR determinations are 1 to 4 weeks. Perform additional INR tests when other warfarin products are interchanged with COUMADIN, as well as whenever other medications are initiated, discontinued, or taken irregularly. Heparin, a common concomitant drug, increases the INR [see DRUG INTERACTIONS]. Determinations of whole blood clotting and bleeding times are not effective measures for monitoring of COUMADIN therapy. Missed Dose The anticoagulant effect of COUMADIN persists beyond 24 hours. If a patient misses a dose of COUMADIN at the intended time of day, the patient should take the dose as soon as possible on the same day. The patient should not double the dose the next day to make up for a missed dose. Intravenous Route of Administration The intravenous dose of COUMADIN is the same as the oral dose. After reconstitution, COUMADIN for injection should be administered as a slow bolus injection into a peripheral vein over 1 to 2 minutes. COUMADIN for injection is not recommended for intramuscular administration. Reconstitute the vial with 2.7 mL of Sterile Water for Injection. The resulting yield is 2.5 mL of a 2 mg per mL solution (5 mg total). Parenteral drug products should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration. Do not use if particulate matter or discoloration is noted. After reconstitution, COUMADIN for injection is stable for 4 hours at room temperature. It does not contain any antimicrobial preservative and, thus, care must be taken to assure the sterility of the prepared solution. The vial is for single use only, and any unused solution should be discarded. Treatment During Dentistry and Surgery Some dental or surgical procedures may necessitate the interruption or change in the dose of COUMADIN therapy. Consider the benefits and risks when discontinuing COUMADIN even for a short period of time. Determine the INR immediately prior to any dental or surgical procedure. In patients undergoing minimally invasive procedures who must be anticoagulated prior to, during, or immediately following these procedures, adjusting the dosage of COUMADIN to maintain the INR at the low end of the therapeutic range may safely allow for continued anticoagulation. Conversion From Other Anticoagulants Heparin Since the full anticoagulant effect of COUMADIN is not achieved for several days, heparin is preferred for initial rapid anticoagulation. During initial therapy with COUMADIN, the interference with heparin anticoagulation is of minimal clinical significance. Conversion to COUMADIN may begin concomitantly with heparin therapy or may be delayed 3 to 6 days. To ensure therapeutic anticoagulation, continue full dose heparin therapy and overlap COUMADIN therapy with heparin for 4 to 5 days and until COUMADIN has produced the desired therapeutic response as determined by INR, at which point heparin may be discontinued. As heparin may affect the INR, patients receiving both heparin and COUMADIN should have INR monitoring at least:
  • 5 hours after the last intravenous bolus dose of heparin, or
  • 4 hours after cessation of a continuous intravenous infusion of heparin, or
  • 24 hours after the last subcutaneous heparin injection.
COUMADIN may increase the activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) test, even in the absence of heparin. A severe elevation ( > 50 seconds) in aPTT with an INR in the desired range has been identified as an indication of increased risk of postoperative hemorrhage. Other Anticoagulants Consult the labeling of other anticoagulants for instructions on conversion to COUMADIN.

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Drugs may interact with COUMADIN through pharmacodynamic or pharmacokinetic mechanisms. Pharmacodynamic mechanisms for drug interactions with COUMADIN are synergism (impaired hemostasis, reduced clotting factor synthesis), competitive antagonism (vitamin K), and alteration of the physiologic control loop for vitamin K metabolism (hereditary resistance). Pharmacokinetic mechanisms for drug interactions with COUMADIN are mainly enzyme induction, enzyme inhibition, and reduced plasma protein binding. It is important to note that some drugs may interact by more than one mechanism. More frequent INR monitoring should be performed when starting or stopping other drugs, including botanicals, or when changing dosages of other drugs, including drugs intended for short-term use (e.g., antibiotics, antifungals, corticosteroids) [see BOXED WARNING]. Consult the labeling of all concurrently used drugs to obtain further information about interactions with COUMADIN or adverse reactions pertaining to bleeding. CYP450 Interactions CYP450 isozymes involved in the metabolism of warfarin include CYP2C9, 2C19, 2C8, 2C18, 1A2, and 3A4. The more potent warfarin S-enantiomer is metabolized by CYP2C9 while the R-enantiomer is metabolized by CYP1A2 and 3A4.
  • Inhibitors of CYP2C9, 1A2, and/or 3A4 have the potential to increase the effect (increase INR) of warfarin by increasing the exposure of warfarin.
  • Inducers of CYP2C9, 1A2, and/or 3A4 have the potential to decrease the effect (decrease INR) of warfarin by decreasing the exposure of warfarin.
Examples of inhibitors and inducers of CYP2C9, 1A2, and 3A4 are below in Table 2; however, this list should not be considered all-inclusive. Consult the labeling of all concurrently used drugs to obtain further information about CYP450 interaction potential. The CYP450 inhibition and induction potential should be considered when starting, stopping, or changing dose of concomitant medications. Closely monitor INR if a concomitant drug is a CYP2C9, 1A2, and/or 3A4 inhibitor or inducer. Table 2: Examples of CYP450 Interactions with Warfarin
Enzyme Inhibitors Inducers CYP2C9 amiodarone, capecitabine, cotrimoxazole, etravirine, fluconazole, fluvastatin, fluvoxamine, metronidazole, miconazole, oxandrolone, sulfinpyrazone, tigecycline, voriconazole, zafirlukast aprepitant, bosentan, carbamazepine, phenobarbital, rifampin CYP1A2 acyclovir, allopurinol, caffeine, cimetidine, ciprofloxacin, disulfiram, enoxacin, famotidine, fluvoxamine, methoxsalen, mexiletine, norfloxacin, oral contraceptives, phenylpropanolamine, propafenone, propranolol, terbinafine, thiabendazole, ticlopidine, verapamil, zileuton montelukast, moricizine, omeprazole, phenobarbital, phenytoin, cigarette smoking CYP3A4 alprazolam, amiodarone, amlodipine, amprenavir, aprepitant, atorvastatin, atazanavir, bicalutamide, cilostazol, cimetidine, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, conivaptan, cyclosporine, darunavir/ritonavir, diltiazem, erythromycin, fluconazole, fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, fosamprenavir, imatinib, indinavir, isoniazid, itraconazole, ketoconazole, lopinavir/ ritonavir, nefazodone, nelfinavir, nilotinib, oral contraceptives, posaconazole, ranitidine, ranolazine, ritonavir, saquinavir, telithromycin, tipranavir, voriconazole, zileuton armodafinil, amprenavir, aprepitant, bosentan, carbamazepine, efavirenz, etravirine, modafinil, nafcillin, phenytoin, pioglitazone, prednisone, rifampin, rufinamide Drugs that Increase Bleeding Risk Examples of drugs known to increase the risk of bleeding are presented in Table 3. Because bleeding risk is increased when these drugs are used concomitantly with warfarin, closely monitor patients receiving any such drug with warfarin. Table 3: Drugs that Can Increase the Risk of Bleeding
Drug Class Specific Drugs Anticoagulants argatroban, dabigatran, bivalirudin, desirudin, heparin, lepirudin Antiplatelet Agents aspirin, cilostazol, clopidogrel, dipyridamole, prasugrel, ticlopidine Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents celecoxib, diclofenac, diflunisal, fenoprofen, ibuprofen, indomethacin, ketoprofen, ketorolac, mefenamic acid, naproxen, oxaprozin, piroxicam, sulindac Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors citalopram, desvenlafaxine, duloxetine, escitalopram, fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, milnacipran, paroxetine, sertraline, venlafaxine, vilazodone Antibiotics and Antifungals There have been reports of changes in INR in patients taking warfarin and antibiotics or antifungals, but clinical pharmacokinetic studies have not shown consistent effects of these agents on plasma concentrations of warfarin. Closely monitor INR when starting or stopping any antibiotic or antifungal in patients taking warfarin. Botanical (Herbal) Products and Foods Exercise caution when botanical (herbal) products are taken concomitantly with COUMADIN. Few adequate, well-controlled studies evaluating the potential for metabolic and/or pharmacologic interactions between botanicals and COUMADIN exist. Due to a lack of manufacturing standardization with botanical medicinal preparations, the amount of active ingredients may vary. This could further confound the ability to assess potential interactions and effects on anticoagulation. Some botanicals may cause bleeding events when taken alone (e.g., garlic and Ginkgo biloba) and may have anticoagulant, antiplatelet, and/or fibrinolytic properties. These effects would be expected to be additive to the anticoagulant effects of COUMADIN. Conversely, some botanicals may decrease the effects of COUMADIN (e.g., co-enzyme Q10, St. John's wort, ginseng). Some botanicals and foods can interact with COUMADIN through CYP450 interactions (e.g., echinacea, grapefruit juice, ginkgo, goldenseal, St. John's wort). Monitor the patient's response with additional INR determinations when initiating or discontinuing any botanicals. Read the Coumadin Drug Interactions Center for a complete guide to possible interactions Learn More »

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COUMADIN® (warfarin sodium) is indicated for:
  • Prophylaxis and treatment of venous thrombosis and its extension, pulmonary embolism (PE).
  • Prophylaxis and treatment of thromboembolic complications associated with atrial fibrillation (AF) and/or cardiac valve replacement.
  • Reduction in the risk of death, recurrent myocardial infarction (MI), and thromboembolic events such as stroke or systemic embolization after myocardial infarction.
Limitations of Use COUMADIN has no direct effect on an established thrombus, nor does it reverse ischemic tissue damage. Once a thrombus has occurred, however, the goals of anticoagulant treatment are to prevent further extension of the formed clot and to prevent secondary thromboembolic complications that may result in serious and possibly fatal sequelae.

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Pregnancy COUMADIN is contraindicated in women who are pregnant except in pregnant women with mechanical heart valves, who are at high risk of thromboembolism [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS and Use in Specific Populations]. COUMADIN can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. COUMADIN exposure during pregnancy causes a recognized pattern of major congenital malformations (warfarin embryopathy and fetotoxicity), fatal fetal hemorrhage, and an increased risk of spontaneous abortion and fetal mortality. If COUMADIN is used during pregnancy or if the patient becomes pregnant while taking this drug, the patient should be apprised of the potential hazard to a fetus [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS and Use In Specific Populations].
  • Hemorrhagic tendencies or blood dyscrasias
  • Recent or contemplated surgery of the central nervous system or eye, or traumatic surgery resulting in large open surfaces [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
  • Bleeding tendencies associated with:
    • Active ulceration or overt bleeding of the gastrointestinal, genitourinary, or respiratory tract
    • Central nervous system hemorrhage
    • Cerebral aneurysms, dissecting aorta
    • Pericarditis and pericardial effusions
    • Bacterial endocarditis
  • Threatened abortion, eclampsia, and preeclampsia
  • Unsupervised patients with conditions associated with potential high level of non-compliance
  • Spinal puncture and other diagnostic or therapeutic procedures with potential for uncontrollable bleeding
  • Hypersensitivity to warfarin or to any other components of this product (e.g., anaphylaxis) [see ADVERSE REACTIONS]
  • Major regional or lumbar block anesthesia
  • Malignant hypertension
Last reviewed on RxList: 10/2/2012
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

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Signs and Symptoms Bleeding (e.g., appearance of blood in stools or urine, hematuria, excessive menstrual bleeding, melena, petechiae, excessive bruising or persistent oozing from superficial injuries, unexplained fall in hemoglobin) is a manifestation of excessive anticoagulation. Treatment The treatment of excessive anticoagulation is based on the level of the INR, the presence or absence of bleeding, and clinical circumstances. Reversal of COUMADIN anticoagulation may be obtained by discontinuing COUMADIN therapy and, if necessary, by administration of oral or parenteral vitamin K1. The use of vitamin K1 reduces response to subsequent COUMADIN therapy and patients may return to a pretreatment thrombotic status following the rapid reversal of a prolonged INR. Resumption of COUMADIN administration reverses the effect of vitamin K, and a therapeutic INR can again be obtained by careful dosage adjustment. If rapid re-anticoagulation is indicated, heparin may be preferable for initial therapy. Prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC), fresh frozen plasma, or activated Factor VII treatment may be considered if the requirement to reverse the effects of COUMADIN is urgent. A risk of hepatitis and other viral diseases is associated with the use of blood products; PCC and activated Factor VII are also associated with an increased risk of thrombosis. Therefore, these preparations should be used only in exceptional or life-threatening bleeding episodes secondary to COUMADIN overdosage.

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Dosage Forms And Strengths COUMADIN tablets are single scored with one face imprinted numerically with 1, 2, 2-1/2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7-1/2, or 10 superimposed and inscribed with “COUMADIN” and with the opposite face plain. COUMADIN tablets are supplied in the following strengths: COUMADIN Tablets Strength Color 1 mg pink 2 mg lavender 2-1/2 mg green 3 mg tan 4 mg blue 5 mg peach 6 mg teal 7-1/2 mg yellow 10 mg white (dye-free ) COUMADIN for injection is available in a vial containing 5 mg of lyophilized powder. Storage And Handling Tablets COUMADIN tablets are single-scored, with one face imprinted numerically with 1, 2, 2-1/2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7-1/2, or 10 superimposed and inscribed with “COUMADIN” and with the opposite face plain. COUMADIN is available in bottles and hospital unit-dose blister packages with potencies and colors as follows:   Bottles of 100 Bottles of 1000 Hospital Unit-Dose Blister Package of 100 1 mg pink NDC 0056-0169-70 NDC 0056-0169-90 NDC 0056-0169-75 2 mg lavender NDC 0056-0170-70 NDC 0056-0170-90 NDC 0056-0170-75 2-1/2 mg green NDC 0056-0176-70 NDC 0056-0176-90 NDC 0056-0176-75 3 mg tan NDC 0056-0188-70 NDC 0056-0188-90 NDC 0056-0188-75 4 mg blue NDC 0056-0168-70 NDC 0056-0168-90 NDC 0056-0168-75 5 mg peach NDC 0056-0172-70 NDC 0056-0172-90 NDC 0056-0172-75 6 mg teal NDC 0056-0189-70 NDC 0056-0189-90 NDC 0056-0189-75 7-1/2 mg yellow NDC 0056-0173-70   NDC 0056-0173-75 10 mg white (dye-free) NDC 0056-0174-70   NDC 0056-0174-75 Protect from light and moisture. Store at controlled room temperature (59°-86°F, 15°-30°C). Dispense in a tight, light-resistant container as defined in the USP. Store the hospital unit-dose blister packages in the carton until contents have been used. Injection COUMADIN for injection vials yield 5 mg of warfarin after reconstitution with 2.7 mL of Sterile Water for Injection (maximum yield is 2.5 mL of a 2 mg/mL solution). Net content of vial is 5.4 mg lyophilized powder. 5-mg vial (box of 6) NDC 0590-0324-35 Protect from light. Keep vial in box until used. Store at controlled room temperature (59°-86°F, 15°-30°C). After reconstitution, store at controlled room temperature (59°-86°F, 15°-30°C) and use within 4 hours. Do not refrigerate. Discard any unused solution. REFERENCES Ansell J, Hirsh J, Hylek E, Jacobson A, Crowther M, Palareti G. Pharmacology and management of the vitamin K antagonists. American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines. 8th Ed. Chest. 2008;133:160S-198S. Kearon C, Kahn SR, Agnelli G, Goldhaber S, Raskob GE, Comerota AJ. Antithrombotic therapy for venous thromboembolic disease. American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines. 8th Ed. Chest. 2008;133:454S-545S. Singer DE, Albers GW, Dalen JE, et al. Antithrombotic therapy in atrial fibrillation. American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines. 8th Ed. Chest. 2008;133:546S-592S. Becker RC, Meade TW, Berger PB, et al. The primary and secondary prevention of coronary artery disease. American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines. 8th Ed. Chest. 2008;133:776S-814S. Salem DN, O'Gara PT, Madias C, Pauker SG. Valvular and structural heart disease. American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines. 8th Ed. Chest. 2008;133:593S-629S. Monagle P, Chalmers E, Chan A, et al. Antithrombotic therapy in neonates and children. American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines. 8th Ed. Chest. 2008;133:887S-968S. Distributed by: Bristol-Myers Squibb Company, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 USA. Rev October 2011 Last reviewed on RxList: 10/2/2012
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

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Hemorrhage COUMADIN can cause major or fatal bleeding. Bleeding is more likely to occur within the first month. Risk factors for bleeding include high intensity of anticoagulation (INR > 4.0), age greater than or equal to 65, history of highly variable INRs, history of gastrointestinal bleeding, hypertension, cerebrovascular disease, anemia, malignancy, trauma, renal impairment, certain genetic factors [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY], certain concomitant drugs [see DRUG INTERACTIONS], and long duration of warfarin therapy. Perform regular monitoring of INR in all treated patients. Those at high risk of bleeding may benefit from more frequent INR monitoring, careful dose adjustment to desired INR, and a shortest duration of therapy appropriate for the clinical condition. However, maintenance of INR in the therapeutic range does not eliminate the risk of bleeding. Drugs, dietary changes, and other factors affect INR levels achieved with COUMADIN therapy. Perform more frequent INR monitoring when starting or stopping other drugs, including botanicals, or when changing dosages of other drugs [see DRUG INTERACTIONS]. Instruct patients about prevention measures to minimize risk of bleeding and to report signs and symptoms of bleeding [see PATIENT INFORMATION]. Tissue Necrosis Necrosis and/or gangrene of skin and other tissues is an uncommon but serious risk ( < 0.1%). Necrosis may be associated with local thrombosis and usually appears within a few days of the start of COUMADIN therapy. In severe cases of necrosis, treatment through debridement or amputation of the affected tissue, limb, breast, or penis has been reported. Careful clinical evaluation is required to determine whether necrosis is caused by an underlying disease. Although various treatments have been attempted, no treatment for necrosis has been considered uniformly effective. Discontinue COUMADIN therapy if necrosis occurs. Consider alternative drugs if continued anticoagulation therapy is necessary. Systemic Atheroemboli and Cholesterol Microemboli Anticoagulation therapy with COUMADIN may enhance the release of atheromatous plaque emboli. Systemic atheroemboli and cholesterol microemboli can present with a variety of signs and symptoms depending on the site of embolization. The most commonly involved visceral organs are the kidneys followed by the pancreas, spleen, and liver. Some cases have progressed to necrosis or death. A distinct syndrome resulting from microemboli to the feet is known as “purple toes syndrome.” Discontinue COUMADIN therapy if such phenomena are observed. Consider alternative drugs if continued anticoagulation therapy is necessary. Heparin-Induced Thrombocytopenia Do not use COUMADIN as initial therapy in patients with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) and with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia with thrombosis syndrome (HITTS). Cases of limb ischemia, necrosis, and gangrene have occurred in patients with HIT and HITTS when heparin treatment was discontinued and warfarin therapy was started or continued. In some patients, sequelae have included amputation of the involved area and/or death. Treatment with COUMADIN may be considered after the platelet count has normalized. Use in Pregnant Women with Mechanical Heart Valves COUMADIN can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. While COUMADIN is contraindicated during pregnancy, the potential benefits of using COUMADIN may outweigh the risks for pregnant women with mechanical heart valves at high risk of thromboembolism. In those individual situations, the decision to initiate or continue COUMADIN should be reviewed with the patient, taking into consideration the specific risks and benefits pertaining to the individual patient's medical situation, as well as the most current medical guidelines. COUMADIN exposure during pregnancy causes a recognized pattern of major congenital malformations (warfarin embryopathy and fetotoxicity), fatal fetal hemorrhage, and an increased risk of spontaneous abortion and fetal mortality. If this drug is used during pregnancy, or if the patient becomes pregnant while taking this drug, the patient should be apprised of the potential hazard to a fetus [see Use In Specific Populations]. Females of Reproductive Potential COUMADIN exposure during pregnancy can cause pregnancy loss, birth defects, or fetal death. Discuss pregnancy planning with females of reproductive potential who are on COUMADIN therapy [see CONTRAINDICATIONS and Use In Specific Populations]. Other Clinical Settings with Increased Risks In the following clinical settings, the risks of COUMADIN therapy may be increased:
  • Moderate to severe hepatic impairment
  • Infectious diseases or disturbances of intestinal flora (e.g., sprue, antibiotic therapy)
  • Use of an indwelling catheter
  • Severe to moderate hypertension
  • Deficiency in protein C-mediated anticoagulant response: COUMADIN reduces the synthesis of the naturally occurring anticoagulants, protein C and protein S. Hereditary or acquired deficiencies of protein C or its cofactor, protein S, have been associated with tissue necrosis following warfarin administration. Concomitant anticoagulation therapy with heparin for 5 to 7 days during initiation of therapy with COUMADIN may minimize the incidence of tissue necrosis in these patients.
  • Eye surgery: In cataract surgery, COUMADIN use was associated with a significant increase in minor complications of sharp needle and local anesthesia block but not associated with potentially sight-threatening operative hemorrhagic complications. As COUMADIN cessation or reduction may lead to serious thromboembolic complications, the decision to discontinue COUMADIN before a relatively less invasive and complex eye surgery, such as lens surgery, should be based upon the risks of anticoagulant therapy weighed against the benefits.
  • Polycythemia vera
  • Vasculitis
  • Diabetes mellitus
Endogenous Factors Affecting INR The following factors may be responsible for increased INR response: diarrhea, hepatic disorders, poor nutritional state, steatorrhea, or vitamin K deficiency. The following factors may be responsible for decreased INR response: increased vitamin K intake or hereditary warfarin resistance. Patient Counseling Information See FDA-approved patient labeling (Medication Guide). Advise patients to:
  • Tell their physician if they fall often as this may increase their risk for complications.
  • Strictly adhere to the prescribed dosage schedule. Do not take or discontinue any other drug, including salicylates (e.g., aspirin and topical analgesics), other over-the-counter drugs, and botanical (herbal) products except on advice of your physician.
  • Notify their physician immediately if any unusual bleeding or symptoms occur. Signs and symptoms of bleeding include: pain, swelling or discomfort, prolonged bleeding from cuts, increased menstrual flow or vaginal bleeding, nosebleeds, bleeding of gums from brushing, unusual bleeding or bruising, red or dark brown urine, red or tar black stools, headache, dizziness, or weakness.
  • Contact their doctor
    • immediately if they think they are pregnant
    • to discuss pregnancy planning
    • if they are considering breast-feeding
  • Avoid any activity or sport that may result in traumatic injury.
  • Obtain prothrombin time tests and make regular visits to their physician or clinic to monitor therapy.
  • Carry identification stating that they are taking COUMADIN.
  • If the prescribed dose of COUMADIN is missed, take the dose as soon as possible on the same day but do not take a double dose of COUMADIN the next day to make up for missed doses.
  • Eat a normal, balanced diet to maintain a consistent intake of vitamin K. Avoid drastic changes in dietary habits, such as eating large amounts of leafy, green vegetables.
  • Contact their physician to report any serious illness, such as severe diarrhea, infection, or fever.
  • Be aware that if therapy with COUMADIN is discontinued, the anticoagulant effects of COUMADIN may persist for about 2 to 5 days.
Nonclinical Toxicology Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility Carcinogenicity, mutagenicity, or fertility studies have not been performed with warfarin. Use In Specific Populations Pregnancy Pregnancy Category D for women with mechanical heart valves [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS] and Pregnancy Category X for other pregnant populations [see CONTRAINDICATIONS]. COUMADIN is contraindicated in women who are pregnant except in pregnant women with mechanical heart valves, who are at high risk of thromboembolism, and for whom the benefits of COUMADIN may outweigh the risks. COUMADIN can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. COUMADIN exposure during pregnancy causes a recognized pattern of major congenital malformations (warfarin embryopathy), fetal hemorrhage, and an increased risk of spontaneous abortion and fetal mortality. The reproductive and developmental effects of COUMADIN have not been evaluated in animals. If this drug is used during pregnancy or if the patient becomes pregnant while taking this drug, the patient should be apprised of the potential hazard to the fetus. In humans, warfarin crosses the placenta, and concentrations in fetal plasma approach the maternal values. Exposure to warfarin during the first trimester of pregnancy caused a pattern of congenital malformations in about 5% of exposed offspring. Warfarin embryopathy is characterized by nasal hypoplasia with or without stippled epiphyses (chondrodysplasia punctata) and growth retardation (including low birth weight). Central nervous system and eye abnormalities have also been reported, including dorsal midline dysplasia characterized by agenesis of the corpus callosum, Dandy-Walker malformation, midline cerebellar atrophy, and ventral midline dysplasia characterized by optic atrophy. Mental retardation, blindness, schizencephaly, microcephaly, hydrocephalus, and other adverse pregnancy outcomes have been reported following warfarin exposure during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy [see CONTRAINDICATIONS and WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]. Nursing Mothers Based on published data in 15 nursing mothers, warfarin was not detected in human milk. Among the 15 full-term newborns, 6 nursing infants had documented prothrombin times within the expected range. Prothrombin times were not obtained for the other 9 nursing infants. Monitor breast-feeding infants for bruising or bleeding. Effects in premature infants have not been evaluated. Caution should be exercised when COUMADIN is administered to a nursing woman. Pediatric Use Adequate and well-controlled studies with COUMADIN have not been conducted in any pediatric population, and the optimum dosing, safety, and efficacy in pediatric patients is unknown. Pediatric use of COUMADIN is based on adult data and recommendations, and available limited pediatric data from observational studies and patient registries. Pediatric patients administered COUMADIN should avoid any activity or sport that may result in traumatic injury. The developing hemostatic system in infants and children results in a changing physiology of thrombosis and response to anticoagulants. Dosing of warfarin in the pediatric population varies by patient age, with infants generally having the highest, and adolescents having the lowest milligram per kilogram dose requirements to maintain target INRs. Because of changing warfarin requirements due to age, concomitant medications, diet, and existing medical condition, target INR ranges may be difficult to achieve and maintain in pediatric patients, and more frequent INR determinations are recommended. Bleeding rates varied by patient population and clinical care center in pediatric observational studies and patient registries. Infants and children receiving vitamin K-supplemented nutrition, including infant formulas, may be resistant to warfarin therapy, while human milk-fed infants may be sensitive to warfarin therapy. Geriatric Use Of the total number of patients receiving warfarin sodium in controlled clinical trials for which data were available for analysis, 1885 patients (24.4%) were 65 years and older, while 185 patients (2.4%) were 75 years and older. No overall differences in effectiveness or safety were observed between these patients and younger patients, but greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be ruled out. Patients 60 years or older appear to exhibit greater than expected INR response to the anticoagulant effects of warfarin [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY]. COUMADIN is con­traindicated in any unsupervised patient with senility. Observe caution with administration of COUMADIN to elderly patients in any situation or with any physical condition where added risk of hemorrhage is present. Consider lower initiation and maintenance doses of COUMADIN in elderly patients [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION]. Renal Impairment Renal clearance is considered to be a minor determinant of anticoagulant response to warfarin. No dosage adjustment is necessary for patients with renal impairment. Hepatic Impairment Hepatic impairment can potentiate the response to warfarin through impaired synthesis of clotting factors and decreased metabolism of warfarin. Use caution when using COUMADIN in these patients. Females of Reproductive Potential COUMADIN exposure during pregnancy can cause spontaneous abortion, birth defects, or fetal death. Females of reproductive potential who are candidates for COUMADIN therapy should be counseled regarding the benefits of therapy and potential reproductive risks. Discuss pregnancy planning with females of reproductive potential who are on COUMADIN therapy. If the patient becomes pregnant while taking COUMADIN, she should be apprised of the potential risks to the fetus. Last reviewed on RxList: 10/2/2012
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

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