Drug: Detrol LA

DETROL LA Capsules contain tolterodine tartrate. The active moiety, tolterodine, is a muscarinic receptor antagonist. The chemical name of tolterodine tartrate is (R)-N,N-diisopropyl-3-(2-hydroxy-5-methylphenyl)-3-phenylpropanamine L-hydrogen tartrate. The empirical formula of tolterodine tartrate is C26H37NO7,. Its structure is: Tolterodine tartrate is a white, crystalline powder with a molecular weight of 475.6. The pKa value is 9.87 and the solubility in water is 12 mg/mL. It is soluble in methanol, slightly soluble in ethanol, and practically insoluble in toluene. The partition coefficient (Log D) between n-octanol and water is 1.83 at pH 7.3. DETROL LA 4 mg capsule for oral administration contains 4 mg of tolterodine tartrate. Inactive ingredients are sucrose, starch, hypromellose, ethylcellulose, medium chain triglycerides, oleic acid, gelatin, and FD&C Blue #2. DETROL LA 2 mg capsule for oral administration contains 2 mg of tolterodine tartrate, and the following inactive ingredients: sucrose, starch, hypromellose, ethylcellulose, medium chain triglycerides, oleic acid, gelatin, yellow iron oxide, and FD&C Blue #2. Both the 2 mg and 4 mg capsule strengths are imprinted with a pharmaceutical grade printing ink that contains shellac glaze, titanium dioxide, propylene glycol, and simethicone.

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Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice. Clinical Trials Experience The efficacy and safety of DETROL LA Capsules was evaluated in 1073 patients (537 assigned to DETROL LA; 536 assigned to placebo) who were treated with 2, 4, 6, or 8 mg/day for up to 15 months. These included a total of 1012 patients (505 randomized to DETROL LA 4 mg once daily and 507 randomized to placebo) enrolled in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, 12-week clinical efficacy and safety study. Adverse events were reported in 52% (n=263) of patients receiving DETROL LA and in 49% (n=247) of patients receiving placebo. The most common adverse events reported by patients receiving DETROL LA were dry mouth, headache, constipation, and abdominal pain. Dry mouth was the most frequently reported adverse event for patients treated with DETROL LA, occurring in 23.4% of patients treated with DETROL LA and 7.7% of placebo-treated patients. Dry mouth, constipation, abnormal vision (accommodation abnormalities), urinary retention, and dry eyes are expected side effects of antimuscarinic agents. A serious adverse event was reported by 1.4% (n=7) of patients receiving DETROL LA and by 3.6% (n=18) of patients receiving placebo. Table 1 lists the adverse events, regardless of causality, that were reported in the randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled 12-week study at an incidence greater than placebo and in greater than or equal to 1% of patients treated with DETROL LA 4 mg once daily. Table 1: Incidence* (%) of Adverse Events Exceeding Placebo Rate and Reported in ≥ 1% of Patients Treated with DETROL LA (4 mg daily) in a 12-week, Phase 3 Clinical Trial
Body System Adverse Event % DETROL LA
n=505 % Placebo
n=507 Autonomic Nervous dry mouth 23 8 General headache 6 5 fatigue 2 1 Central/Peripheral Nervous dizziness 2 1 Gastrointestinal constipation 6 4 abdominal pain 4 2 dyspepsia 3 1 Vision xerophthalmia 3 2 vision abnormal 1 0 Psychiatric somnolence 3 2 anxiety 1 0 Respiratory sinusitis 2 1 Urinary dysuria 1 0 * in nearest integer. The frequency of discontinuation due to adverse events was highest during the first 4 weeks of treatment. Similar percentages of patients treated with DETROL LA or placebo discontinued treatment due to adverse events. Dry mouth was the most common adverse event leading to treatment discontinuation among patients receiving DETROL LA [n=12 (2.4%) vs. placebo n=6 (1.2%)]. Post-marketing Experience The following events have been reported in association with tolterodine use in worldwide post-marketing experience: General: anaphylaxis and angioedema; Cardiovascular: tachycardia, palpitations, peripheral edema; Gastrointestinal: diarrhea; Central/Peripheral Nervous: confusion, disorientation, memory impairment, hallucinations. Reports of aggravation of symptoms of dementia (e.g., confusion, disorientation, delusion) have been reported after tolterodine therapy was initiated in patients taking cholinesterase inhibitors for the treatment of dementia. Because these spontaneously reported events are from the worldwide post-marketing experience, the frequency of events and the role of tolterodine in their causation cannot be reliably determined. Read the Detrol LA (tolterodine tartrate) Side Effects Center for a complete guide to possible side effectsLearn More »

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Dosing Information The recommended dose of DETROL LA Capsules is 4 mg once daily with water and swallowed whole. The dose may be lowered to 2 mg daily based on individual response and tolerability; however, limited efficacy data are available for DETROL LA 2 mg [see Clinical Studies]. Dosage Adjustment in Specific Populations For patients with mild to moderate hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh Class A or B) or severe renal impairment (CCr 10-30 mL/min), the recommended dose of DETROL LA is 2 mg once daily. DETROL LA is not recommended for use in patients with severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh Class C). Patients with CCr < 10 mL/min have not been studied and use of DETROL LA in this population is not recommended [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS and Use In Specific Populations]. Dosage Adjustment in Presence of Concomitant Drugs For patients who are taking drugs that are potent inhibitors of CYP3A4 [e.g., ketoconazole, clarithromycin, ritonavir], the recommended dose of DETROL LA is 2 mg once daily [see DRUG INTERACTIONS].

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Potent CYP2D6 Inhibitors Fluoxetine, a potent inhibitor of CYP2D6 activity, significantly inhibited the metabolism of tolterodine immediate release in CYP2D6 extensive metabolizers, resulting in a 4.8-fold increase in tolterodine AUC. There was a 52% decrease in Cmax and a 20% decrease in AUC of 5-hydroxymethyl tolterodine (5-HMT), the pharmacologically active metabolite of tolterodine [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY]. The sums of unbound serum concentrations of tolterodine and 5-HMT are only 25% higher during the interaction. No dose adjustment is required when tolterodine and fluoxetine are co-administered [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY]. Potent CYP3A4 Inhibitors Ketoconazole (200 mg daily), a potent CYP3A4 inhibitor, increased the mean Cmax and AUC of tolterodine by 2- and 2.5-fold, respectively, in CYP2D6 poor metabolizers. For patients receiving ketoconazole or other potent CYP3A4 inhibitors such as itraconazole, clarithromycin, or ritonavir, the recommended dose of DETROL LA is 2 mg once daily [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION and CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY]. Other Interactions No clinically relevant interactions have been observed when tolterodine was co-administered with warfarin, with a combined oral contraceptive drug containing ethinyl estradiol and levonorgestrel, or with diuretics [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY] Other Drugs Metabolized by Cytochrome P450 Isoenzymes In vivo drug-interaction data show that tolterodine immediate release does not result in clinically relevant inhibition of CYP1A2, 2D6, 2C9, 2C19, or 3A4 as evidenced by lack of influence on the marker drugs caffeine, debrisoquine, S-warfarin, and omeprazole [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY]. Drug-Laboratory-Test Interactions Interactions between tolterodine and laboratory tests have not been studied. Other Anticholinergics The concomitant use of DETROL LA with other anticholinergic (antimuscarinic) agents may increase the frequency and/or severity of dry mouth, constipation, blurred vision, somnolence, and other anticholinergic pharmacological effects. Read the Detrol LA Drug Interactions Center for a complete guide to possible interactions Learn More »

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DETROL LA Capsules is indicated for the treatment of overactive bladder with symptoms of urge urinary incontinence, urgency, and frequency [see Clinical Studies ].

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DETROL LA is contraindicated in patients with urinary retention, gastric retention, or uncontrolled narrow-angle glaucoma. DETROL LA is also contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity to the drug or its ingredients, or to fesoterodine fumarate extended-release tablets which, like DETROL LA, are metabolized to 5-hydroxymethyl tolterodine [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]. Last reviewed on RxList: 9/5/2012
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

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Overdosage with DETROL LA Capsules can potentially result in severe central anticholinergic effects and should be treated accordingly. ECG monitoring is recommended in the event of overdosage. In dogs, changes in the QT interval (slight prolongation of 10% to 20%) were observed at a suprapharmacologic dose of 4.5 mg/kg, which is about 68 times higher than the recommended human dose. In clinical trials of normal volunteers and patients, QT interval prolongation was observed with tolterodine immediate release at doses up to 8 mg (4 mg bid) and higher doses were not evaluated [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS and CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY]. A 27-month-old child who ingested 5 to 7 tolterodine immediate release 2 mg tablets was treated with a suspension of activated charcoal and was hospitalized overnight with symptoms of dry mouth. The child fully recovered.

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Dosage Forms And Strengths The 2 mg capsules are blue-green with symbol and 2 printed in white ink. The 4 mg capsules are blue with symbol and 4 printed in white ink. Storage And Handling DETROL LA Capsules are supplied as follows: Bottles of 30   Bottles of 500   2 mg Capsules NDC 0009-5190-01 2 mg Capsules NDC 0009-5190-03 4 mg Capsules NDC 0009-5191-01 4 mg Capsules NDC 0009-5191-03 Bottles of 90   Unit Dose Blisters   2 mg Capsules NDC 0009-5190-02 2 mg Capsules NDC 0009-5190-04 4 mg Capsules NDC 0009-5191-02 4 mg Capsules NDC 0009-5191-04 Store at 20°–25°C (68°–77°F); excursions permitted to 15–30°C (59–86°F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature]. Protect from light. Distributed by : Pharmacia & Upjohn CO., Division of Pfizer Inc, NY, NY 10017. Revised: 08/2012 Last reviewed on RxList: 9/5/2012
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

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Angioedema Anaphylaxis and angioedema requiring hospitalization and emergency medical treatment have occurred with the first or subsequent doses of DETROL LA. In the event of difficulty in breathing, upper airway obstruction, or fall in blood pressure, DETROL LA should be discontinued and appropriate therapy promptly provided. Urinary Retention Administer DETROL LA Capsules with caution to patients with clinically significant bladder outflow obstruction because of the risk of urinary retention [see CONTRAINDICATIONS]. Gastrointestinal Disorders Administer DETROL LA with caution in patients with gastrointestinal obstructive disorders because of the risk of gastric retention. DETROL LA, like other antimuscarinic drugs, may decrease gastrointestinal motility and should be used with caution in patients with conditions associated with decreased gastrointestinal motility (e.g., intestinal atony) [see CONTRAINDICATIONS]. Controlled Narrow-Angle Glaucoma Administer DETROL LA with caution in patients being treated for narrow-angle glaucoma [see CONTRAINDICATIONS]. Central Nervous System Effects Detrol LA is associated with anticholinergic central nervous system (CNS) effects [see ADVERSE REACTIONS] including dizziness and somnolence [see ADVERSE REACTIONS]. Patients should be monitored for signs of anticholinergic CNS effects, particularly after beginning treatment or increasing the dose. Advise patients not to drive or operate heavy machinery until the drug's effects have been determined. If a patient experiences anticholinergic CNS effects, dose reduction or drug discontinuation should be considered. Hepatic Impairment The clearance of orally administered tolterodine immediate release was substantially lower in cirrhotic patients than in the healthy volunteers. For patients with mild to moderate hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh Class A or B), the recommended dose for DETROL LA is 2 mg once daily. DETROL LA is not recommended for use in patients with severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh Class C) [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION and Use In Specific Populations ]. Renal Impairment Renal impairment can significantly alter the disposition of tolterodine and its metabolites. The dose of DETROL LA should be reduced to 2 mg once daily in patients with severe renal impairment (CCr: 1030 mL/min). Patients with CCr < 10 mL/min have not been studied and use of DETROL LA in this population is not recommended [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION and Use In Specific Populations]. Myasthenia Gravis Administer DETROL LA with caution in patients with myasthenia gravis, a disease characterized by decreased cholinergic activity at the neuromuscular junction. Use in Patients with Congenital or Acquired QT Prolongation In a study of the effect of tolterodine immediate release tablets on the QT interval [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY], the effect on the QT interval appeared greater for 8 mg/day (two times the therapeutic dose) compared to 4 mg/day and was more pronounced in CYP2D6 poor metabolizers (PM) than extensive metabolizers (EMs). The effect of tolterodine 8 mg/day was not as large as that observed after four days of therapeutic dosing with the active control moxifloxacin. However, the confidence intervals overlapped. These observations should be considered in clinical decisions to prescribe DETROL LA to patients with a known history of QT prolongation or to patients who are taking Class IA (e.g., quinidine, procainamide) or Class III (e.g., amiodarone, sotalol) antiarrhythmic medications. There has been no association of Torsade de Pointes in the international post-marketing experience with DETROL or DETROL LA. Patient Counseling Information See FDA-Approved Patient Labeling. Information for Patients Patients should be informed that antimuscarinic agents such as DETROL LA may produce the following effects: blurred vision, dizziness, or drowsiness. Patients should be advised to exercise caution in decisions to engage in potentially dangerous activities until the drug's effects have been determined. Nonclinical Toxicology Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility Carcinogenicity studies with tolterodine were conducted in mice and rats. At the maximum tolerated dose in mice (30 mg/kg/day), female rats (20 mg/kg/day), and male rats (30 mg/kg/day), exposure margins were approximately 6-9 times, 7 times, and 11 times the clinical exposure to the pharmacologically active components of DETROL® LA (based on AUC of tolterodine and its 5-HMT metabolite). At these exposure margins, no increase in tumors was found in either mice or rats. No mutagenic or genotoxic effects of tolterodine were detected in a battery of in vitro tests, including bacterial mutation assays (Ames test) in 4 strains of Salmonella typhimurium and in 2 strains of Escherichia coli, a gene mutation assay in L5178Y mouse lymphoma cells, and chromosomal aberration tests in human lymphocytes. Tolterodine was also negative in vivo in the bone marrow micronucleus test in the mouse. In female mice treated for 2 weeks before mating and during gestation with 20 mg/kg/day (about 9-12 times the clinical exposure via AUC), neither effects on reproductive performance or fertility were seen. In male mice, a dose of 30 mg/kg/day did not induce any adverse effects on fertility. Use In Specific Populations Pregnancy Pregnancy Category C At approximately 9-12 times the clinical exposure to the pharmacologically active components of DETROL® LA, no anomalies or malformations were observed in mice (based on the AUC of tolterodine and its 5-HMT metabolite at a dose of 20 mg/kg/day). At 14-18 times the exposure (doses of 30 to 40 mg/kg/day) in mice, tolterodine has been shown to be embryolethal and reduce fetal weight, and increase the incidence of fetal abnormalities (cleft palate, digital abnormalities, intra-abdominal hemorrhage, and various skeletal abnormalities, primarily reduced ossification). Pregnant rabbits treated subcutaneously at about 0.3 - 2.5 times the clinical exposure (dose of 0.8 mg/kg/day) did not show any embryotoxicity or teratogenicity. There are no studies of tolterodine in pregnant women. Therefore, DETROL LA should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit for the mother justifies the potential risk to the fetus. Nursing Mothers Tolterodine is excreted into the milk in mice. Offspring of female mice treated with tolterodine 20 mg/kg/day during the lactation period had slightly reduced body weight gain. The offspring regained the weight during the maturation phase. It is not known whether tolterodine is excreted in human milk; therefore, DETROL LA should not be administered during nursing. A decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue DETROL LA in nursing mothers. Pediatric Use Efficacy in the pediatric population has not been demonstrated. The pharmacokinetics of tolterodine extended release capsules have been evaluated in pediatric patients ranging in age from 11–15 years. The dose-plasma concentration relationship was linear over the range of doses assessed. Parent/metabolite ratios differed according to CYP2D6 metabolizer status [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY]. CYP2D6 extensive metabolizers had low serum concentrations of tolterodine and high concentrations of the active metabolite 5-HMT, while poor metabolizers had high concentrations of tolterodine and negligible active metabolite concentrations. A total of 710 pediatric patients (486 on DETROL LA, 224 on placebo) aged 5–10 with urinary frequency and urge incontinence were studied in two randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, 12-week studies. The percentage of patients with urinary tract infections was higher in patients treated with DETROL LA (6.6%) compared to patients who received placebo (4.5%). Aggressive, abnormal, and hyperactive behavior and attention disorders occurred in 2.9% of children treated with DETROL LA compared to 0.9% of children treated with placebo. Geriatric Use No overall differences in safety were observed between the older and younger patients treated with tolterodine. In multiple-dose studies in which tolterodine immediate release 4 mg (2 mg bid) was administered, serum concentrations of tolterodine and of 5-HMT were similar in healthy elderly volunteers (aged 64 through 80 years) and healthy young volunteers (aged less than 40 years). In another clinical study, elderly volunteers (aged 71 through 81 years) were given tolterodine immediate release 2 or 4 mg (1 or 2 mg bid). Mean serum concentrations of tolterodine and 5-HMT in these elderly volunteers were approximately 20% and 50% higher, respectively, than concentrations reported in young healthy volunteers. However, no overall differences were observed in safety between older and younger patients on tolterodine in the Phase 3, 12-week, controlled clinical studies; therefore, no tolterodine dosage adjustment for elderly patients is recommended. Renal Impairment Renal impairment can significantly alter the disposition of tolterodine immediate release and its metabolites. In a study conducted in patients with creatinine clearance between 10 and 30 mL/min, tolterodine and 5-HMT levels were approximately 2–3 fold higher in patients with renal impairment than in healthy volunteers. Exposure levels of other metabolites of tolterodine (e.g., tolterodine acid, N-dealkylated tolterodine acid, Ndealkylated tolterodine, and N-dealkylated hydroxy tolterodine) were significantly higher (10–30 fold) in renally impaired patients as compared to the healthy volunteers. The recommended dose for patients with severe renal impairment (CCr: 10-30 mL/min) is DETROL LA 2 mg daily. Patients with CCr < 10 mL/min have not been studied and use of DETROL LA in this population is not recommended [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION and WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]. DETROL LA has not been studied in patients with mild to moderate renal impairment [CCr 30-80 mL/min]. Hepatic Impairment Liver impairment can significantly alter the disposition of tolterodine immediate release. In a study of tolterodine immediate release conducted in cirrhotic patients (Child-Pugh Class A and B), the elimination half-life of tolterodine immediate release was longer in cirrhotic patients (mean, 7.8 hours) than in healthy, young, and elderly volunteers (mean, 2 to 4 hours). The clearance of orally administered tolterodine immediate release was substantially lower in cirrhotic patients (1.0 ± 1.7 L/h/kg) than in the healthy volunteers (5.7 ± 3.8 L/h/kg). The recommended dose for patients with mild to moderate hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh Class A or B) is DETROL LA 2 mg once daily. DETROL LA is not recommended for use in patients with severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh Class C) [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION and WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]. Gender The pharmacokinetics of tolterodine immediate release and 5-HMT are not influenced by gender. Mean Cmax of tolterodine immediate release (1.6 μg/L in males versus 2.2 μg/L in females) and the active 5-HMT (2.2 μg/L in males versus 2.5 μg/L in females) are similar in males and females who were administered tolterodine immediate release 2 mg. Mean AUC values of tolterodine (6.7 μg·h/L in males versus 7.8 μg·h/L in females) and 5-HMT (10 μg·h/L in males versus 11 μg·h/L in females) are also similar. The elimination half-life of tolterodine immediate release for both males and females is 2.4 hours, and the half-life of 5-HMT is 3.0 hours in females and 3.3 hours in males. Race Pharmacokinetic differences due to race have not been established. Last reviewed on RxList: 9/5/2012
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

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