Drug: Banzel

BANZEL (rufinamide) is a triazole derivative structurally unrelated to currently marketed antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Rufinamide has the chemical name 1-[(2,6-difluorophenyl)methyl]-1H­1,2,3-triazole-4 carboxamide. It has an empirical formula of C10H8F2N4O and a molecular weight of 238.2. The drug substance is a white, crystalline, odorless and slightly bitter tasting neutral powder. Rufinamide is practically insoluble in water, slightly soluble in tetrahydrofuran and in methanol, and very slightly soluble in ethanol and in acetonitrile. BANZEL (rufinamide tablets) is available for oral administration in film-coated tablets, scored on both sides, containing 200 and 400 mg of rufinamide. Inactive ingredients are colloidal silicon dioxide, corn starch crosscarmellose sodium, hypromellose, lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, and sodium lauryl sulphate. The film coating contains hypromellose, iron oxide red, polyethylene glycol, talc, and titanium dioxide. BANZEL (rufinamide tablets) is also available for oral administration as a liquid containing rufinamide at a concentration of 40 mg/mL. Inactive ingredients include microcrystalline cellulose and carboxymethylcellulose sodium, hydroxyethylcellulose, anhydrous citric acid, simethicone emulsion 30%, poloxamer 188, methylparaben, propylparaben, propylene glycol, potassium sorbate, noncrystallizing sorbitol solution 70%, and an orange flavor.

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Controlled Trials Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice. Placebo-controlled double-blind studies were performed in adults and in pediatric patients, down to age of 4, in other forms of epilepsy, in addition to the trial in Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. Data on CNS Reactions [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS] from the Lennox-Gastaut study are presented first. Because there is no reason to suspect that adverse reactions would substantially differ between these patient populations, safety data from all of these controlled studies are then presented. Most of these adverse reactions were mild to moderate and transient in nature. Common central nervous system reactions in the controlled trial of patients 4 years or older with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome treated with BANZEL (rufinamide tablets) as adjunctive therapy [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS] Somnolence was reported in 24.3% of BANZEL (rufinamide tablets) -treated patients compared to 12.5% of placebo patients and led to study discontinuation in 2.7% of treated patients compared to 0% of placebo patients. Fatigue was reported in 9.5% of BANZEL (rufinamide tablets) -treated patients compared to 7.8% of placebo patients. It led to study discontinuation in 1.4% of treated patients and 0% of placebo patients. Dizziness was reported in 2.7% of BANZEL (rufinamide tablets) -treated patients compared to 0% of placebo patients, and did not lead to study discontinuation. Ataxia and gait disturbance were reported in 5.4% and 1.4% of BANZEL (rufinamide tablets) -treated patients, respectively, and in no placebo patients. Balance disorder and abnormal coordination were each reported in 0% of BANZEL (rufinamide tablets) -treated patients and 1.6% of placebo patients. None of these reactions led to study discontinuation. All Adverse Reactions for All Treated Patients with Epilepsy, Double-blind Adjunctive Therapy Studies: The most commonly observed ( ≥ 10%) adverse reactions in BANZEL (rufinamide tablets) -treated patients, when used as adjunctive therapy at all doses studied (200 to 3200 mg/day) with a higher frequency than in placebo were: headache, dizziness, fatigue, somnolence, and nausea. Table 2 lists treatment-emergent adverse reactions that occurred in at least 3% of pediatric patients with epilepsy treated with BANZEL (rufinamide tablets) in controlled adjunctive studies and were numerically more common in patients treated with BANZEL (rufinamide tablets) than placebo. At the target dose of 45 mg/kg/day for adjunctive therapy in children, the most commonly observed ( ≥ 3%) adverse reactions with an incidence greater than in placebo, for BANZEL (rufinamide tablets) were somnolence, vomiting and headache. Table 2: Incidence (%) of Treatment-Emergent Adverse Reactions in all Pediatric Double-Blind Adjunctive Trials by Preferred Term at the Recommended Dose of 45 mg/kg/day (Adverse Reactions occurred in at least 3% of BANZEL (rufinamide tablets) -treated patients and occurred more frequently than in Placebo Patients)
Preferred Term BANZEL (rufinamide tablets)
(N=187)
% Placebo
(N=182)
% Somnolence 17 9 Vomiting 17 7 Headache 16 8 Fatigue 9 8 Dizziness 8 6 Nausea 7 3 Influenza 5 4 Nasopharyngitis 5 3 Decreased Appetite 5 2 Rash 4 2 Ataxia 4 1 Diplopia 4 1 Bronchitis 3 2 Sinusitis 3 2 Psychomotor Hyperactivity 3 1 Abdominal Pain Upper 3 2 Aggression 3 2 Ear Infection 3 1 Disturbance in Attention 3 1 Pruritis 3 0 Table 3 lists treatment-emergent adverse reactions that occurred in at least 3% of adult patients with epilepsy treated with BANZEL (rufinamide tablets) (up to 3200mg/day) in adjunctive controlled studies and were numerically more common in patients treated with BANZEL (rufinamide tablets) than placebo. In these studies, either BANZEL (rufinamide tablets) or placebo was added to current AED therapy. At all doses studied of up to 3200 mg/day given as adjunctive therapy in adults, the most commonly observed ( ≥ 3%) adverse reactions, and with the greatest increase in incidence compared to placebo, for BANZEL (rufinamide tablets) were dizziness, fatigue, nausea, diplopia, vision blurred, and ataxia. Table 3: Incidence (%) of Treatment-Emergent Adverse Reactions in all Adult Double-Blind Adjunctive Trials (up to 3200mg/day) by Preferred Term (Adverse Reactions occurred in at least 3% of BANZEL (rufinamide tablets) -treated patients and occurred more frequently than in Placebo Patients)
Preferred Term BANZEL (rufinamide tablets)
(N=823)
% Placebo
(N=376)
% Headache 27 26 Dizziness 19 12 Fatigue 16 10 Nausea 12 9 Somnolence 11 9 Diplopia 9 3 Tremor 6 5 Nystagmus 6 5 Vision Blurred 6 2 Vomiting 5 4 Ataxia 4 0 Abdominal Pain Upper 3 2 Anxiety 3 2 Constipation 3 2 Dyspepsia 3 2 Back Pain 3 1 Gait Disturbance 3 1 Vertigo 3 1 Discontinuation in Controlled Clinical Studies In controlled double-blind adjunctive clinical studies, 9.0% of patients receiving BANZEL (rufinamide tablets) as adjunctive therapy and 4.4% receiving placebo discontinued as a result of an adverse reaction. The adverse reactions most commonly leading to discontinuation of BANZEL (rufinamide tablets) ( > 1%) used as adjunctive therapy were generally similar in adults and children. In pediatric double-blind adjunctive clinical studies, 8.0% of patients receiving BANZEL (rufinamide tablets) as adjunctive therapy and 2.2% receiving placebo discontinued as a result of an adverse reaction. The adverse reactions most commonly leading to discontinuation of BANZEL (rufinamide tablets) ( > 1%) used as adjunctive therapy are presented in Table 4. Table 4: Adverse Reactions Most Commonly Leading to Discontinuation in Double-Blind Adjunctive Trials (At The Recommended Dose of 45mg/kg/day) in Pediatric Patients
Preferred Term BANZEL (rufinamide tablets)
(N=187)
% Placebo
(N=182)
% Convulsion 2 1 Rash 2 1 Fatigue 2 0 Vomiting 1 0 In adult double-blind adjunctive clinical studies (up to 3200 mg/day), 9.5% of patients receiving BANZEL (rufinamide tablets) as adjunctive therapy and 5.9% receiving placebo discontinued as a result of an adverse reaction. The adverse reactions most commonly leading to discontinuation of BANZEL (rufinamide tablets) ( > 1%) used as adjunctive therapy are presented in Table 5. Table 5: Adverse Reactions Most Commonly Leading to Discontinuation in Double-Blind Adjunctive Trials (up to 3200 mg/day) in Adult Patients
Preferred Term BANZEL (rufinamide tablets)
(N=823)
% Placebo
(N=376)
% Dizziness 3 1 Fatigue 2 1 Headache 2 1 Nausea 1 0 Ataxia 1 0 Other Adverse Events Observed During Clinical Trials BANZEL (rufinamide tablets) has been administered to 1978 individuals during all epilepsy clinical trials (placebo¬≠controlled and open-label). Adverse events occurring during these studies were recorded by the investigators using terminology of their own choosing. To provide a meaningful estimate of the proportion of patients having adverse events, these events were grouped into standardized categories using the MedDRA dictionary. Adverse events occurring at least three times and considered possibly related to treatment are included in the System Organ Class listings below. Terms not included in the listings are those already included in the tables above, those too general to be informative, those related to procedures and terms describing events common in the population. Some events occurring fewer than 3 times are also included based on their medical significance. Because the reports include events observed in open-label, uncontrolled observations, the role of BANZEL (rufinamide tablets) in their causation cannot be reliably determined. Events are classified by body system and listed in order of decreasing frequency as follows: frequent adverse events- those occurring in at least 1/100 patients; infrequent adverse events-those occurring in 1/100 to 1/1000 patients; rare- those occurring in fewer than 1/1000 patients. Blood and Lymphatic System Disorders: Frequent: anemia. Infrequent: lymphadenopathy, leukopenia, neutropenia, iron deficiency anemia, thrombocytopenia. Cardiac Disorders: Infrequent: bundle branch block right, atrioventricular block first degree. Metabolic and Nutritional Disorders: Frequent: decreased appetite, increased appetite. Renal and Urinary Disorders: Frequent: pollakiuria. Infrequent: urinary incontinence, dysuria, hematuria, nephrolithiasis, polyuria, enuresis, nocturia, incontinence. Read the Banzel (rufinamide tablets) Side Effects Center for a complete guide to possible side effectsLearn More »

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BANZEL (rufinamide tablets) should be given with food. Tablets can be administered whole, as half tablets or crushed, for dosing flexibility. BANZEL (rufinamide tablets) Oral Suspension should be shaken well before every administration. The provided adapter and calibrated oral dosing syringe should be used to administer the oral suspension. The adapter which is supplied in the product carton should be inserted firmly into the neck of the bottle before use and remain in place for the duration of the usage of the bottle. The dosing syringe should be inserted into the adapter and the dose withdrawn from the inverted bottle. The cap should be replaced after each use. The cap fits properly when the adapter is in place. See BANZEL (rufinamide tablets) Oral Suspension Dosing Instructions for complete instructions on how to properly dose and administer the BANZEL (rufinamide tablets) Oral Suspension. Patient with Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome Children four years and older with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome: Treatment should be initiated at a daily dose of approximately 10 mg/kg/day administered in two equally divided doses. The dose should be increased by approximately 10 mg/kg increments every other day to a target dose of 45 mg/kg/day or 3200 mg/day, whichever is less, administered in two equally divided doses. It is not known whether doses lower than the target doses are effective. Adults with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome: Treatment should be initiated at a daily dose of 400-800 mg/day administered in two equally divided doses. The dose should be increased by 400-800 mg every other day until a maximum daily dose of 3200 mg/day, administered in two equally divided doses is reached. It is not known whether doses lower than 3200 mg are effective. Patients with Renal Impairment Renally impaired patients (creatinine clearance less than 30 mL/min) do not require any special dosage change when taking BANZEL [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY ] Patients Undergoing Hemodialysis Hemodialysis may reduce exposure to a limited (about 30%) extent. Accordingly, adjusting the BANZEL (rufinamide tablets) dose during the dialysis process should be considered [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY] Patients with Hepatic Disease Use of BANZEL (rufinamide tablets) in patients with hepatic impairment has not been studied. Therefore, use in patients with severe hepatic impairment is not recommended. Caution should be exercised in treating patients with mild to moderate hepatic impairment [see Use in Specific Population]. Patients on Antiepileptic Drugs (AEDs) Patients on valproate should begin at a BANZEL (rufinamide tablets) dose lower than 10 mg/kg/day (children) or 400 mg/day (adults). For effects of other AEDs on BANZEL see DRUG INTERACTIONS.

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Based on in vitro studies, rufinamide shows little or no inhibition of most cytochrome P450 enzymes at clinically relevant concentrations, with weak inhibition of CYP 2E1. Drugs that are substrates of CYP 2E1 (e.g. chlorzoxazone) may have increased plasma levels in the presence of rufinamide, but this has not been studied. Based on in vivo drug interaction studies with triazolam and oral contraceptives, rufinamide is a weak inducer of the CYP 3A4 enzyme and can decrease exposure of drugs that are substrates of CYP 3A4. Rufinamide is metabolized by carboxylesterases. Drugs that may induce the activity of carboxylesterases may increase the clearance of rufinamide. Broad-spectrum inducers such as carbamazepine and phenobarbital may have minor effects on rufinamide metabolism via this mechanism. Drugs that are inhibitors of carboxylesterases may decrease metabolism of rufinamide. Effects of BANZEL (rufinamide tablets) on other AEDs Population pharmacokinetic analysis of average concentration at steady state of carbamazepine, lamotrigine, phenobarbital, phenytoin, topiramate, and valproate showed that typical rufinamide Cavss levels had little effect on the pharmacokinetics of other AEDs. Any effects, when they occur, have been more marked in the pediatric population. Table 6 summarizes the drug-drug interactions of BANZEL (rufinamide tablets) with other AEDs. Table 6: Summary of drug-drug interactions of BANZEL (rufinamide tablets) with other antiepileptic drugs
AED Co-administered Influence of Rufinamide on AED concentrationa) Influence of AED on Rufinamide concentration Carbamazepine Decrease by 7 to 13%b) Decrease by 19 to 26% Dependent on dose of carbamazepine Lamotrigine Decrease by 7 to 13%b) No Effect Phenobarbital Increase by 8 to 13% b) Decrease by 25 to 46%c) d) Independent of dose or concentration of phenobarbital Phenytoin Increase by 7 to 21% b) Decrease by 25 to 46%c) d) Independent of dose or concentration of phenytoin Topiramate No Effect No Effect Valproate No Effect Increase by

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BANZEL (rufinamide) is indicated for adjunctive treatment of seizures associated with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome in children 4 years and older and adults.

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BANZEL (rufinamide tablets) is contraindicated in patients with Familial Short QT syndrome [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS, QT Shortening ] Last reviewed on RxList: 4/22/2011
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

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Because strategies for the management of overdose are continually evolving, it is advisable to contact a Certified Poison Control Center to determine the latest recommendations for the management of an overdose of any drug. One overdose of 7200 mg/day BANZEL (rufinamide tablets) was reported in an adult during the clinical trials. The overdose was associated with no major signs or symptoms, no medical intervention was required, and the patient continued in the study at the target dose. Treatment or Management of Overdose: There is no specific antidote for overdose with BANZEL (rufinamide tablets) . If clinically indicated, elimination of unabsorbed drug should be attempted by induction of emesis or gastric lavage. Usual precautions should be observed to maintain the airway. General supportive care of the patient is indicated including monitoring of vital signs and observation of the clinical status of the patient. Hemodialysis: Standard hemodialysis procedures may result in limited clearance of rufinamide. Although there is no experience to date in treating overdose with hemodialysis, the procedure may be considered when indicated by the patient's clinical state.

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Dosage Forms And Strengths Film coated Tablets: 200 mg (pink) and 400 mg (pink). Tablets are scored on both sides. Oral Suspension: 40mg/mL. Storage And Handling BANZEL 200 mg tablets (containing 200 mg rufinamide) are pink in color, film-coated, oblong-shape tablets, with a score on both sides, imprinted with “ε 262” on one side. They are available in bottles of 30 (NDC 62856-582-30). BANZEL 400 mg tablets (containing 400 mg rufinamide) are pink in color, film-coated, oblong-shape tablets, with a score on both sides, imprinted with “ε 263” on one side. They are available in bottles of 120 (NDC 62856-583-52). BANZEL (rufinamide tablets) Oral Suspension is an orange flavored liquid supplied in a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottle with child-resistant closure. The oral suspension is packaged with a dispenser set which contains a calibrated oral dosing syringe and an adapter. Store the oral suspension in an upright position. Use within 90 days of first opening the bottle, then discard any remainder. The oral suspension is available in bottles of 460 mL (NDC 62856-584-46). Store the tablets at 25°C (77°F); excursions permitted to 15°- 30°C (59°F - 86°F). Protect from moisture. Replace cap securely after opening. Store the oral suspension at 25°C (77°F); excursions permitted to 15°- 30°C (59°F - 86°F). Replace cap securely after opening. The cap fits properly in place when the adapter is in place. Manufactured by: Eisai Co., Ltd. Marketed by Eisai Inc. Woodcliff Lake, NJ 07677. Revised March 2011 Last reviewed on RxList: 4/22/2011
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

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Suicidal Behavior and Ideation Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), including Banzel (rufinamide tablets) , increase the risk of suicidal thoughts or behavior in patients taking these drugs for any indication. Patients treated with any AED for any indication should be monitored for the emergence or worsening of depression, suicidal thoughts or behavior, and/or any unusual changes in mood or behavior. Pooled analyses of 199 placebo-controlled clinical trials (mono- and adjunctive therapy) of 11 different AEDs showed that patients randomized to one of the AEDs had approximately twice the risk (adjusted Relative Risk 1.8, 95% CI:1.2, 2.7) of suicidal thinking or behavior compared to patients randomized to placebo. In these trials, which had a median treatment duration of 12 weeks, the estimated incidence rate of suicidal behavior or ideation among 27,863 AED-treated patients was 0.43%, compared to 0.24% among 16,029 placebo-treated patients, representing an increase of approximately one case of suicidal thinking or behavior for every 530 patients treated. There were four suicides in drug-treated patients in the trials and none in placebo-treated patients, but the number is too small to allow any conclusion about drug effect on suicide. The increased risk of suicidal thoughts or behavior with AEDs was observed as early as one week after starting drug treatment with AEDs and persisted for the duration of treatment assessed. Because most trials included in the analysis did not extend beyond 24 weeks, the risk of suicidal thoughts or behavior beyond 24 weeks could not be assessed. The risk of suicidal thoughts or behavior was generally consistent among drugs in the data analyzed. The finding of increased risk with AEDs of varying mechanisms of action and across a range of indications suggests that the risk applies to all AEDs used for any indication. The risk did not vary substantially by age (5-100 years) in the clinical trials analyzed. Table 1 shows absolute and relative risk by indication for all evaluated AEDs. Table 1: Absolute and Relative Risk of Suicidal Behavior and Ideation
Indication Placebo Patients with Events Per1000 Patients Drug Patients with Events Per1000 Patients Relative Risk: Incidence of Events in Drug Patients/Incidence in Placebo Patients Risk Difference: Additional Drug Patients with Events Per 1000 Patients Epilepsy 1.0 3.4 3.5 2.4 Psychiatric 5.7 8.5 1.5 2.9 Other 1.0 1.8 1.9 0.9 Total 2.4 4.3 1.8 1.9 The relative risk for suicidal thoughts or behavior was higher in clinical trials for epilepsy than in clinical trials for psychiatric or other conditions, but the absolute risk differences were similar for the epilepsy and psychiatric indications. Anyone considering prescribing Banzel (rufinamide tablets) or any other AED must balance the risk of suicidal thoughts or behavior with the risk of untreated illness. Epilepsy and many other illnesses for which AEDs are prescribed are themselves associated with morbidity and mortality and an increased risk of suicidal thoughts and behavior. Should suicidal thoughts and behavior emerge during treatment, the prescriber needs to consider whether the emergence of these symptoms in any given patient may be related to the illness being treated. Patients, their caregivers, and families should be informed that AEDs increase the risk of suicidal thoughts and behavior and should be advised of the need to be alert for the emergence or worsening of the signs and symptoms of depression, any unusual changes in mood or behavior, or the emergence of suicidal thoughts, behavior, or thoughts about self-harm. Behaviors of concern should be reported immediately to healthcare providers. Central Nervous System Reactions Use of BANZEL (rufinamide tablets) has been associated with central nervous system-related adverse reactions. The most significant of these can be classified into two general categories: 1) somnolence or fatigue, and 2) coordination abnormalities, dizziness, gait disturbances, and ataxia [see ADVERSE REACTIONS]. QT Shortening Formal cardiac ECG studies demonstrated shortening of the QT interval (mean = 20 msec, for doses > 2400 mg twice daily) with BANZEL (rufinamide tablets) treatment. In a placebo-controlled study of the QT interval, a higher percentage of BANZEL (rufinamide tablets) -treated subjects (46% at 2400 mg, 46% at 3200 mg, and 65% at 4800 mg) had a QT shortening of greater than 20 msec at Tmax compared to placebo (5 – 10%). Reductions of the QT interval below 300 msec were not observed in the formal QT studies with doses up to 7200 mg/day. Moreover, there was no signal for drug-induced sudden death or ventricular arrhythmias. The degree of QT shortening induced by BANZEL (rufinamide tablets) is without any known clinical risk. Familial Short QT syndrome is associated with an increased risk of sudden death and ventricular arrhythmias, particularly ventricular fibrillation. Such events in this syndrome are believed to occur primarily when the corrected QT interval falls below 300 msec. Non-clinical data also indicate that QT shortening is associated with ventricular fibrillation. Patients with Familial Short QT syndrome should not be treated with BANZEL (rufinamide tablets) . Caution should be used when administering BANZEL (rufinamide tablets) with other drugs that shorten the QT interval [see CONTRAINDICATIONS]. Multi-organ Hypersensitivity Reactions Multi-organ hypersensitivity syndrome, a serious condition sometimes induced by antiepileptic drugs, has occurred in association with BANZEL (rufinamide tablets) therapy in clinical trials. One patient experienced rash, urticaria, facial edema, fever, elevated eosinophils, stuperous state, and severe hepatitis, beginning on day 29 of BANZEL (rufinamide tablets) therapy and extending over a course of 30 days of continued BANZEL (rufinamide tablets) therapy with resolution 11 days after discontinuation. Additional possible cases presented with rash and one or more of the following: fever, elevated liver function studies, hematuria, and lymphadenopathy. These cases occurred in children less than 12 years of age, within four weeks of treatment initiation, and were noted to resolve and/or improve upon BANZEL (rufinamide tablets) discontinuation. This syndrome has been reported with other anticonvulsants and typically, although not exclusively, presents with fever and rash associated with other organ system involvement. Because this disorder is variable in its expression, other organ system signs and symptoms not noted here may occur. If this reaction is suspected, BANZEL (rufinamide tablets) should be discontinued and alternative treatment started. All patients who develop a rash while taking BANZEL (rufinamide tablets) must be closely supervised. Withdrawal of AEDs As with all antiepileptic drugs, BANZEL (rufinamide tablets) should be withdrawn gradually to minimize the risk of precipitating seizures, seizure exacerbation, or status epilepticus. If abrupt discontinuation of the drug is medically necessary, the transition to another AED should be made under close medical supervision. In clinical trials, BANZEL (rufinamide tablets) discontinuation was achieved by reducing the dose by approximately 25% every two days. Status Epilepticus Estimates of the incidence of treatment emergent status epilepticus among patients treated with BANZEL (rufinamide tablets) are difficult because standard definitions were not employed. In a controlled Lennox-Gastaut syndrome trial, 3 of 74 (4.1 %) BANZEL (rufinamide tablets) -treated patients had episodes that could be described as status epilepticus in the BANZEL (rufinamide tablets) -treated patients compared with none of the 64 patients in the placebo-treated patients. In all controlled trials that included patients with different epilepsies, 11 of 1240 (0.9%) BANZEL (rufinamide tablets) -treated patients had episodes that could be described as status epilepticus compared with none of 635 patients in the placebo-treated patients. Laboratory Tests Leucopenia (white cell count < 3X109 L) was more commonly observed in BANZEL (rufinamide tablets) -treated patients (43 of 1171, 3.7%) than placebo-treated patients (7 of 579, 1.2%) in all controlled trials. Patient Counseling Information Patients should be informed of the availability of a Medication guide and they should be instructed to read the Medication Guide prior to taking BANZEL (rufinamide tablets) . Patients should be instructed to take BANZEL (rufinamide tablets) only as prescribed. Suicidal Thinking and Behavior Patients, their caregivers, and families should be informed that antiepileptic drugs increase the risk of suicidal thoughts and behavior and should be advised of the need to be alert for the emergence or worsening of the signs and symptoms of depression, any unusual changes in mood or behavior, or the emergence of suicidal thoughts, behavior, or thoughts about self-harm. Behaviors of concern should be reported immediately to healthcare providers. As with all centrally acting medications, alcohol in combination with BANZEL (rufinamide tablets) may cause additive central nervous system effects. Patients should be advised to notify their physician if they experience a rash associated with fever. BANZEL (rufinamide tablets) should be taken with food. Patients should be advised about the potential for somnolence or dizziness and advised not to drive or operate machinery until they have gained sufficient experience on BANZEL (rufinamide tablets) to gauge whether it adversely affects their mental and/or motor performance. Female patients of childbearing age should be warned that the concurrent use of BANZEL (rufinamide tablets) with hormonal contraceptives may render this method of contraception less effective [see DRUG INTERACTIONS]. Additional non-hormonal forms of contraception are recommended when using BANZEL (rufinamide tablets) . Patients should be advised to notify their physician if they become pregnant or intend to become pregnant during therapy. They should also be encouraged to enroll in the North American Antiepileptic Drug Pregnancy Registry if they become pregnant. To enroll, patients can call the toll free number 1-888-233-2334 [see Use In Specific Populations]. Patients should be advised to notify their physician if they are breast-feeding or intend to breast-feed. Patients who are prescribed the oral suspension should be advised to shake the bottle vigorously before every administration and to use the adaptor and oral dosing syringe. When applicable patients should be advised that Banzel (rufinamide tablets) oral suspension does not contain lactose or gluten and is dye-free. The oral suspension does contain carbohydrates. Nonclinical Toxicology Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility Carcinogenesis Rufinamide was given in the diet to mice at 40, 120, and 400 mg/kg/day and to rats at 20, 60, and 200 mg/kg/day for two years. The doses in mice were associated with plasma AUCs 0.1 to 1 times the human plasma AUC at the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD, 3200 mg/day). Increased incidences of tumors (benign bone tumors (osteomas) and/or hepatocellular adenomas and carcinomas) were observed in mice at all doses. Increased incidences of thyroid follicular adenomas were observed in rats at all but the low dose; the low dose is < 0.1 times the MRHD on a mg/m² basis. Mutagenesis Rufinamide was not mutagenic in the in vitro bacterial reverse mutation (Ames) assay or the in vitro mammalian cell point mutation assay. Rufinamide was not clastogenic in the in vitro mammalian cell chromosomal aberration assay or the in vivo rat bone marrow micronucleus assay. Impairment of Fertility Oral administration of rufinamide (doses of 20, 60, 200, and 600 mg/kg/day) to male and female rats prior to mating and throughout mating, and continuing in females up to day 6 of gestation resulted in impairment of fertility (decreased conception rates and mating and fertility indices; decreased numbers of corpora lutea, implantations, and live embryos; increased preimplantation loss; decreased sperm count and motility) at all doses tested. Therefore, a no-effect dose was not established. The lowest dose tested was associated with a plasma AUC ≈ 0.2 times the human plasma AUC at the MRHD. Use In Specific Populations Pregnancy Pregnancy Category C There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. BANZEL (rufinamide tablets) should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus. Rufinamide produced developmental toxicity when administered orally to pregnant animals at clinically relevant doses. Rufinamide was administered orally to rats at doses of 20, 100, and 300 mg/kg/day and to rabbits at doses of 30, 200, and 1000 mg/kg/day during the period of organogenesis (implantation to closure of the hard palate); the high doses are associated with plasma AUCs ≈2 times the human plasma AUC at the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD, 3200 mg/day). Decreased fetal weights and increased incidences of fetal skeletal abnormalities were observed in rats at doses associated with maternal toxicity. In rabbits, embryo-fetal death, decreased fetal body weights, and increased incidences of fetal visceral and skeletal abnormalities occurred at all but the low dose. The highest dose tested in rabbits was associated with abortion. The no-effect doses for adverse effects on rat and rabbit embryo-fetal development (20 and 30 mg/kg/day, respectively) were associated with plasma AUCs ≈ 0.2 times that in humans at the MRHD. In a rat pre- and post-natal development study (dosing from implantation through weaning) conducted at oral doses of 5, 30, and 150 mg/kg/day (associated with plasma AUCs up to ≈1.5 times that in humans at the MRHD), decreased offspring growth and survival were observed at all doses tested. A no-effect dose for adverse effects on pre- and post-natal development was not established. The lowest dose tested was associated with plasma AUC < 0.1 times that in humans at the MRHD. Pregnancy Registry To provide information regarding the effects of in utero exposure to Banzel (rufinamide tablets) physicians are advised to recommend that pregnant patients taking BANZEL (rufinamide tablets) enroll in the North American Antiepileptic Drug Pregnancy Registry. This can be done by calling the toll free number 1-888-233-2334, and must be done by patients themselves. Information on the registry can also be found at the website http://www.aedpregnancyregistry.org/. Labor and Delivery The effect of BANZEL (rufinamide tablets) on labor and delivery in humans is not known. Nursing Mothers Rufinamide is likely to be excreted in human milk. Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from BANZEL (rufinamide tablets) , a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or discontinue the drug taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother. Pediatric Use The safety and effectiveness in patients with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome have not been established in children less than 4 years. The pharmacokinetics of rufinamide in the pediatric population (age 4-17 years) is similar to that in the adults [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY] Geriatric Use Clinical studies of BANZEL (rufinamide tablets) did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy. Pharmacokinetics of rufinamide in the elderly are similar to that in the young subjects [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY] Renal Impairment: Rufinamide pharmacokinetics in patients with severe renal impairment (creatinine clearance < 30 mL/min) was similar to that of healthy subjects. Dose adjustment in patients undergoing dialysis should be considered [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION and CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY]. Hepatic Impairment There have been no specific studies investigating the effect of hepatic impairment on the pharmacokinetics of rufinamide. Therefore, use in patients with severe hepatic impairment is not recommended. Caution should be exercised in treating patients with mild to moderate hepatic impairment [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION]. Last reviewed on RxList: 4/22/2011
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

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