Drug: Daliresp

The active ingredient in DALIRESP tablets is roflumilast. Roflumilast and its active metabolite (roflumilast Noxide) are selective phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) inhibitors. The chemical name of roflumilast is N-(3,5- dichloropyridin-4-yl)-3-cyclopropylmethoxy-4-difluoromethoxy-benzamide. Its empirical formula is C17H14Cl2F2N2O3 and the molecular weight is 403.22. The chemical structure is: The drug substance is a white to off-white non-hygroscopic powder with a melting point of 160°C. It is practically insoluble in water and hexane, sparingly soluble in ethanol and freely soluble in acetone. DALIRESP is supplied as white to off-white, round tablets, embossed with “D” on one side and “500” on the other side. Each tablet contains 500 mcg of roflumilast. Each tablet of DALIRESP for oral administration contains the following inactive ingredients: lactose monohydrate, corn starch, povidone and magnesium stearate.

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The following adverse reactions are described in greater detail in other sections:
  • Psychiatric Events Including Suicidality [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
  • Weight Decrease [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
Adverse Reactions in Clinical Studies Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice. The safety data described below reflect exposure of 4438 patients to DALIRESP 500 mcg once daily in four 1- year placebo-controlled trials, two 6-month placebo-controlled trials, and two 6-month drug add-on trials [see Clinical Studies]. In these trials, 3136 and 1232 COPD patients were exposed to DALIRESP 500 mcg once daily for 6 months and 1-year, respectively. The population had a median age of 64 years (range 40-91), 73% were male, 92.9% were Caucasian, and had COPD with a mean pre-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) of 8.9 to 89.1% predicted. In these trials, 68.5% of the patients treated with DALIRESP reported an adverse reaction compared with 65.3% treated with placebo. The proportion of patients who discontinued treatment due to adverse reaction was 14.8% for DALIRESPtreated patients and 9.9% for placebo-treated patients. The most common adverse reactions that led to discontinuation of DALIRESP were diarrhea (2.4%) and nausea (1.6%). Serious adverse reactions, whether considered drug-related or not by the investigators, which occurred more frequently in DALIRESP-treated patients include diarrhea, atrial fibrillation, lung cancer, prostate cancer, acute pancreatitis, and acute renal failure. Table 1 summarizes the adverse reactions reported by ≥ 2% of patients in the DALIRESP group in 8 controlled COPD clinical trials. Table 1: Adverse Reactions Reported by ≥ 2% of Patients Treated with DALIRESP 500 mcg daily and Greater Than Placebo
Adverse Reactions (Preferred Term) Treatment DALIRESP
(N=4438)
n (%) Placebo
(N=4192)
n (%) Diarrhea 420 (9.5) 113 (2.7) Weight decreased 331 (7.5) 89 (2.1) Nausea 209 (4.7) 60 (1.4) Headache 195 (4.4) 87 (2.1) Back pain 142 (3.2) 92 (2.2) Influenza 124 (2.8) 112 (2.7) Insomnia 105 (2.4) 41 (1.0) Dizziness 92 (2.1) 45 (1.1) Decreased appetite 91 (2.1) 15 (0.4) Adverse reactions that occurred in the DALIRESP group at a frequency of 1 to 2% where rates exceeded that in the placebo group include: Gastrointestinal disorders - abdominal pain, dyspepsia, gastritis, vomiting Infections and infestations - rhinitis, sinusitis, urinary tract infection, Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders - muscle spasms Nervous system disorders - tremor Psychiatric disorders - anxiety, depression Postmarketing Experience The following adverse reactions have been identified from spontaneous reports of DALIRESP received worldwide and have not been listed elsewhere. These adverse reactions have been chosen for inclusion due to a combination of seriousness, frequency of reporting or potential causal connection to DALIRESP. Because these adverse reactions were reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not possible to estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to DALIRESP exposure: hypersensitivity reactions including angioedema, urticaria, and rash. Read the Daliresp (roflumilast) Side Effects Center for a complete guide to possible side effectsLearn More »

Source: http://www.rxlist.com

The recommended dose of DALIRESP is one 500 microgram (mcg) tablet per day, with or without food.

Source: http://www.rxlist.com

A major step in roflumilast metabolism is the N-oxidation of roflumilast to roflumilast N-oxide by CYP3A4 and CYP1A2 [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY]. Drugs That Induce Cytochrome P450 (CYP) Enzymes Strong cytochrome P450 enzyme inducers decrease systemic exposure to roflumilast and may reduce the therapeutic effectiveness of DALIRESP. Therefore the use of strong cytochrome P450 inducers (e.g., rifampicin, phenobarbital, carbamazepine, and phenytoin) with DALIRESP is not recommended [see DRUG INTERACTIONS and CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY Drugs That Inhibit Cytochrome P450 (CYP) Enzymes The co-administration of DALIRESP (500 mcg) with CYP3A4 inhibitors or dual inhibitors that inhibit both CYP3A4 and CYP1A2 simultaneously (e.g., erythromycin, ketoconazole, fluvoxamine, enoxacin, cimetidine) may increase roflumilast systemic exposure and may result in increased adverse reactions. The risk of such concurrent use should be weighed carefully against benefit. [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY]. Oral Contraceptives Containing Gestodene and Ethinyl Estradiol The co-administration of DALIRESP (500 mcg) with oral contraceptives containing gestodene and ethinyl estradiol may increase roflumilast systemic exposure and may result in increased side effects. The risk of such concurrent use should be weighed carefully against benefit [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY]. Read the Daliresp Drug Interactions Center for a complete guide to possible interactions Learn More »

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DALIRESP® is indicated as a treatment to reduce the risk of COPD exacerbations in patients with severe COPD associated with chronic bronchitis and a history of exacerbations. Limitations of Use DALIRESP is not a bronchodilator and is not indicated for the relief of acute bronchospasm.

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The use of DALIRESP is contraindicated in the following condition: Moderate to severe liver impairment (Child-Pugh B or C) [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY and Use in Special Populations]. Last reviewed on RxList: 9/6/2013
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

Source: http://www.rxlist.com

Human Experience No case of overdose has been reported in clinical studies with DALIRESP. During the Phase I studies of DALIRESP, the following symptoms were observed at an increased rate after a single oral dose of 2500 mcg and a single dose of 5000 mcg: headache, gastrointestinal disorders, dizziness, palpitations, lightheadedness, clamminess and arterial hypotension. Management of Overdose In case of overdose, patients should seek immediate medical help. Appropriate supportive medical care should be provided. Since roflumilast is highly protein bound, hemodialysis is not likely to be an efficient method of drug removal. It is not known whether roflumilast is dialyzable by peritoneal dialysis.

Source: http://www.rxlist.com

Dosage Forms And Strengths DALIRESP is supplied as white to off-white, round tablets, embossed with “D” on one side and “500” on the other side. Each tablet contains 500 mcg of roflumilast. DALIRESP is supplied as white to off-white, round tablets, embossed with “D” on one side and “500” on the other side. Each tablet contains 500 mcg of roflumilast. DALIRESP tablets are available: Bottles of 30: NDC 0456-0095-30
Bottles of 90: NDC 0456-0095-90
10 x 10 Unit Dose: NDC 0456-0095-63 Storage and Handling Store DALIRESP 500 mcg tablets at 20° - 25°C (68° - 77°F); excursions permitted to 15° - 30°C (59° - 86°F). [See USP Controlled Room Temperature]. Manufactured by: Takeda GmbH, Production Site Oranienburg, Lehnitzstrasse 70 – 98,16515 Oranienburg, Germany. Manufactured for: Forest Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Subsidiary of Forest Laboratories, Inc., St. Louis, MO 63045, USA. Rev. 08/2013 Last reviewed on RxList: 9/6/2013
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

Source: http://www.rxlist.com

Treatment of Acute Bronchospasm DALIRESP is not a bronchodilator and should not be used for the relief of acute bronchospasm. Psychiatric Events including Suicidality Treatment with DALIRESP is associated with an increase in psychiatric adverse reactions. In 8 controlled clinical trials 5.9% (263) of patients treated with DALIRESP 500 mcg daily reported psychiatric adverse reactions compared to 3.3% (137) treated with placebo. The most commonly reported psychiatric adverse reactions were insomnia, anxiety, and depression which were reported at higher rates in those treated with DALIRESP 500 mcg daily (2.4%, 1.4%, and 1.2% for DALIRESP versus 1.0%, 0.9%, and 0.9% for placebo, respectively) [see ADVERSE REACTIONS]. Instances of suicidal ideation and behavior, including completed suicide, have been observed in clinical trials. Three patients experienced suicide-related adverse reactions (one completed suicide and two suicide attempts) while receiving DALIRESP compared to one patient (suicidal ideation) who received placebo. Cases of suicidal ideation and behavior, including completed suicide, have been observed in the post-marketing setting in patients with or without a history of depression. Before using DALIRESP in patients with a history of depression and/or suicidal thoughts or behavior, prescribers should carefully weigh the risks and benefits of treatment with DALIRESP in such patients. Patients, their caregivers, and families should be advised of the need to be alert for the emergence or worsening of insomnia, anxiety, depression, suicidal thoughts or other mood changes, and if such changes occur to contact their healthcare provider. Prescribers should carefully evaluate the risks and benefits of continuing treatment with DALIRESP if such events occur. Weight Decrease Weight loss was a common adverse reaction in DALIRESP clinical trials and was reported in 7.5% (331) of patients treated with DALIRESP 500 mcg once daily compared to 2.1% (89) treated with placebo [see ADVERSE REACTIONS]. In addition to being reported as adverse reactions, weight was prospectively assessed in two placebo-controlled clinical trials of one year duration. In these studies, 20% of patients receiving roflumilast experienced moderate weight loss (defined as between 5-10% of body weight) compared to 7% of patients who received placebo. In addition, 7% of patients who received roflumilast compared to 2% of patients receiving placebo experienced severe ( > 10% body weight) weight loss. During follow-up after treatment discontinuation, the majority of patients with weight loss regained some of the weight they had lost while receiving DALIRESP. Patients treated with DALIRESP should have their weight monitored regularly. If unexplained or clinically significant weight loss occurs, weight loss should be evaluated, and discontinuation of DALIRESP should be considered. Drug Interactions A major step in roflumilast metabolism is the N-oxidation of roflumilast to roflumilast N-oxide by CYP3A4 and CYP1A2. The administration of the cytochrome P450 enzyme inducer rifampicin resulted in a reduction in exposure, which may result in a decrease in the therapeutic effectiveness of DALIRESP. Therefore, the use of strong cytochrome P450 enzyme inducers (e.g. rifampicin, phenobarbital, carbamazepine, phenytoin) with DALIRESP is not recommended [see Drugs That Induce Cytochrome P450 (CYP) Enzymes and CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY]. Patient Counseling Information See FDA-approved patient labeling (Medication Guide).
  • Bronchospasm
    DALIRESP is not a bronchodilator and should not be used for the relief of acute bronchospasm. [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
  • Psychiatric Events including Suicidality
    Treatment with DALIRESP is associated with an increase in psychiatric adverse reactions. In clinical trials, 5.9% (263) of patients treated with DALIRESP 500 mcg daily reported psychiatric adverse reactions compared to 3.3% (137) treated with placebo. The most commonly reported psychiatric adverse events were insomnia, anxiety, and depression which were reported at higher rates in those treated with DALIRESP 500 mcg (2.4%, 1.4%, and 1.2% for DALIRESP versus 1.0%, 0.9%, and 0.9% for placebo, respectively). Instances of suicidal ideation and behavior, including completed suicide, have been observed in clinical trials. Three patients experienced suicide-related adverse reactions (one completed suicide and two suicide attempts) while receiving DALIRESP compared to one patient (suicidal ideation) who received placebo. Cases of suicidal ideation and behavior, including completed suicide, have been observed in the post-marketing setting in patients with or without a history of depression.
    Before using DALIRESP in patients with a history of depression and/or suicidal thoughts or behavior, prescribers should carefully weigh the risks and benefits of treatment with DALIRESP in such patients. Patients, their caregivers, and families should be advised of the need to be alert for the emergence or worsening of insomnia, anxiety, depression, suicidal thoughts or other mood changes, and if such changes occur to contact their healthcare provider. Prescribers should carefully evaluate the risks and benefits of continuing treatment with DALIRESP if such events occur [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
  • Weight Decrease
    Weight loss was a common adverse reaction in DALIRESP clinical trials and was reported in 7.5% (331) of patients treated with DALIRESP 500 mcg once daily compared to 2.1% (89) treated with placebo. In two placebo-controlled clinical trials of one year duration in which weight was prospectively assessed, 20% of patients receiving roflumilast experienced moderate weight loss (defined as between 5-10% of body weight) compared to 7% of patients who received placebo and 7% of patients who received roflumilast compared to 2% of patients receiving placebo experienced severe ( > 10% body weight) weight loss. During follow-up after treatment discontinuation, the majority of patients with weight loss regained some of the weight they had lost while receiving DALIRESP. Patients treated with DALIRESP should have their weight monitored regularly. If unexplained or clinically significant weight loss occurs, weight loss should be evaluated, and discontinuation of DALIRESP should be considered [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
  • Drug Interactions
    The administration of the cytochrome P450 enzyme inducer rifampicin resulted in a reduction in exposure which may result in a decrease in the therapeutic effectiveness of DALIRESP. Therefore, the use of strong cytochrome P450 enzyme inducers (e.g. rifampicin, phenobarbital, carbamazepine, phenytoin) with DALIRESP is not recommended [see Drugs That Induce Cytochrome P450 (CYP) Enzymes and CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
Nonclinical Toxicology Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility Long-term studies were conducted in hamsters and mice with roflumilast to evaluate its carcinogenic potential. In 2-year oral gavage carcinogenicity studies, roflumilast treatment resulted in dose-related, statistically significant increases in the incidence of undifferentiated carcinomas of nasal epithelium in hamsters at ≥ 8 mg/kg/day (approximately 11 times the MRHD based on summed AUCs of roflumilast and its metabolites). The tumorigenicity of roflumilast appears to be attributed to a reactive metabolite of 4-amino-3,5-dichloropyridine N-oxide (ADCP N-oxide). No evidence of tumorigenicity was observed in mice at roflumilast oral doses up to 12 and 18 mg/kg/day in females and males, respectively (approximately 10 and 15 times the MRHD, respectively, based on summed AUCs of roflumilast and its metabolites). Roflumilast tested positive in an in vivo mouse micronucleus test, but negative in the following assays: Ames test for bacterial gene mutation, in vitro chromosome aberration assay in human lymphocytes, in vitro HPRT test with V79 cells, an in vitro micronucleus test with V79 cells, DNA adduct formation assay in rat nasal mucosa, liver and testes, and in vivo mouse bone marrow chromosome aberration assay. Roflumilast N-oxide was negative in the Ames test and in vitro micronucleus test with V79 cells. In a human spermatogenesis study, roflumilast 500 mcg had no effects on semen parameters or reproductive hormones during the 3-month treatment period and the following 3-month off-treatment period. In a fertility study, roflumilast decreased fertility rates in male rats at 1.8-mg/kg/day (approximately 29 times the MRHD on a mg/m² basis). These rats also showed increases in the incidence of tubular atrophy, degeneration in the testis and spermiogenic granuloma in the epididymides. No effect on male rat fertility rate or reproductive organ morphology was observed at 0.8 mg/kg/day (approximately 13 times the MRHD on a mg/m² basis). No effect on female fertility was observed up to the highest roflumilast dose of 1.5 mg/kg/day in rats (approximately 24 times the MRHD on a mg/m² basis). Use In Specific Populations Pregnancy Teratogenic effects Pregnancy Category C There are no adequate and well controlled studies of DALIRESP in pregnant women. DALIRESP was not teratogenic in mice, rats, or rabbits. DALIRESP should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus. DALIRESP induced stillbirth and decreased pup viability in mice at doses corresponding to approximately 16 and 49 times, respectively, the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) (on a mg/m² basis at maternal doses > 2 mg/kg/day and 6 mg/kg/day, respectively). DALIRESP induced post-implantation loss in rats at doses greater than or equal to approximately 10 times the MRHD (on a mg/m² basis at maternal doses ≥ 0.6 mg/kg/day). No treatment-related effects on embryo-fetal development were observed in mice, rats, and rabbits at approximately 12, 3, and 26 times the MRHD, respectively (on a mg/m² basis at maternal doses of 1.5, 0.2, and 0.8 mg/kg/day, respectively). Nonteratogenic effects: DALIRESP has been shown to adversely affect pup post-natal development when dams were treated with the drug during pregnancy and lactation periods in mice. These studies found that DALIRESP decreased pup rearing frequencies at approximately 49 times the MRHD (on a mg/mg2 basis at a maternal dose of 6 mg/kg/day) during pregnancy and lactation. DALIRESP also decreased survival and forelimb grip reflex and delayed pinna detachment in mouse pups at approximately 97 times the MRHD (on a mg/m² basis at a maternal dose of 12 mg/kg/day) during pregnancy and lactation. Labor and Delivery DALIRESP should not be used during labor and delivery. There are no human studies that have investigated effects of DALIRESP on preterm labor or labor at term; however, animal studies showed that DALIRESP disrupted the labor and delivery process in mice. DALIRESP induced delivery retardation in pregnant mice at doses greater than or equal to approximately 16 times the MRHD (on a mg/m² basis at a maternal dose of > 2 mg/kg/day). Nursing Mothers Roflumilast and/or its metabolites are excreted into the milk of lactating rats. Excretion of roflumilast and/or its metabolites into human milk is probable. There are no human studies that have investigated effects of DALIRESP on breast-fed infants. DALIRESP should not be used by women who are nursing. Pediatric Use COPD does not normally occur in children. The safety and effectiveness of DALIRESP in pediatric patients have not been established. Geriatric Use Of the 4438 COPD subjects exposed to DALIRESP for up to 12 months in 8 controlled clinical trials, 2022 were > 65 years of age and 471 were > 75 years of age. No overall differences in safety or effectiveness were observed between these subjects and younger subjects and other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients, but greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be ruled out. Based on available data for roflumilast, no adjustment of dosage in geriatric patients is warranted [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY]. Hepatic Impairment Roflumilast 250 mcg once daily for 14 days was studied in subjects with mild-to-moderate hepatic impairment classified as Child-Pugh A and B (8 subjects in each group). The AUCs of roflumilast and roflumilast N-oxide were increased by 51% and 24%, respectively in Child-Pugh A subjects and by 92% and 41%, respectively in Child-Pugh B subjects, as compared to age-, weight- and gender-matched healthy subjects. The Cmax of roflumilast and roflumilast N-oxide were increased by 3% and 26%, respectively in Child-Pugh A subjects and by 26% and 40%, respectively in Child-Pugh B subjects, as compared to healthy subjects. DALIRESP 500 mcg has not been studied in hepatically impaired patients. Clinicians should consider the risk-benefit of administering DALIRESP to patients who have mild liver impairment (Child-Pugh A). DALIRESP is not recommended for use in patients with moderate or severe liver impairment (Child-Pugh B or C) [see CONTRAINDICATIONS and CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY]. Renal Impairment In twelve subjects with severe renal impairment administered a single dose of 500 mcg roflumilast, the AUCs of roflumilast and roflumilast N-oxide were decreased by 21% and 7%, respectively and Cmax were reduced by 16% and 12%, respectively. No dosage adjustment is necessary for patients with renal impairment [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY]. Last reviewed on RxList: 9/6/2013
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

Source: http://www.rxlist.com

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