Drug: Clinolipid

CLINOLIPID Lipid Injectable Emulsion, USP is a sterile, non-pyrogenic lipid emulsion for intravenous infusion. CLINOLIPID injection is a lipid emulsion containing a mixture of refined olive oil and refined soybean oil in an approximate ratio of 4:1 (olive:soy). The lipid content is 0.20 g/mL. In CLINOLIPID injection, the mean composition of linoleic acid (an omega-6 essential fatty acid) is 35.8 mg/mL (range 27.6 - 44.0 mg/mL) and a-linolenic acid (an omega-3 essential fatty acid) is 4.7 mg/mL (range 1.0 - 8.4 mg/mL). The phospholipids provide 470 milligrams or 15 mmol of phosphorus per liter. The total energy content, including fat, phospholipids and glycerin is 2000 kcal/L. Each 100 mL of CLINOLIPID 20% contains approximately 16 g of Olive Oil NF and 4 g of Soybean Oil USP, 1.2 g Egg Phospholipids NF, 2.25 g Glycerin USP, 0.03 g Sodium Oleate, and Water for Injection USP. Sodium Hydroxide NF for pH adjustment, pH: 6 .0 -9.0. The olive and soybean oils are refined natural products consisting of a mixture of neutral triglycerides of predominantly unsaturated fatty acids with the following structure: The major component fatty acids are linoleic (13.8-22.0%), oleic (44.3-79.5%), palmitic (7.6-19.3%), linolenic (0.5-4.2) and stearic (0.7-5.0%). These fatty acids have the following chemical and structural formulas: CLINOLIPID 20% has an osmolality of approximately 340 mOsmol/kg water (which represents an osmolarity of 260 mOsmol/liter of emulsion) Drug product contains no more than 25 mcg/L of aluminum. Last reviewed on RxList: 10/18/2013
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

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Clinical Trials Experience Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice. The CLINOLIPID injection trials had small sample sizes and patients had a variety of underlying medical conditions both between different trials and within the individual trials. Patients had gastrointestinal diseases/dysfunction or were recovering from gastrointestinal or other surgeries, trauma, burns, or were afflicted by other chronic illness. The largest trial (Study 1, 48 subjects) enrolled patients with many different underlying diagnoses. The rates of treatment emergent adverse reactions can therefore not be directly compared to rates observed in the clinical trials of other related products and may not reflect the rates observed in clinical practice. Commonly observed adverse reactions in 261 adult patients who received CLINOLIPID injection were nausea and vomiting, hyperlipidemia, hyperglycemia, hypoproteinemia and abnormal liver function tests and occurred in 2-10 % of patients. In Study 1 the most common adverse reactions were infectious complications (urinary tract infection, septicemia, and fever of unknown origin), treatment emergent abnormalities on liver/gallbladder ultrasound and abnormalities of serum chemistries, principally, hepatic function tests. Adverse reactions in Study 2 were similar. Adverse reactions reported with other intravenous lipid emulsions include hyperlipidemia, hypercoagulability, thrombophlebitis, and thrombocytopenia. Adverse reactions reported in long-term use with other intravenous lipid emulsions include hepatomegaly, jaundice due to central lobular cholestasis, splenomegaly, thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, abnormalities in liver function tests, brown pigmentation of the liver and overloading syndrome (focal seizures, fever, leukocytosis, hepatomegaly, splenomegaly and shock). Post-marketing Experience The following adverse reactions have been identified during use of CLINOLIPID injection, and listed by MedDRA System Organ Class, then by Preferred Term in order of severity. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure. Gastrointestinal Disorders: Diarrhea Skin And Subcutaneous Tissue Disorders: Pruritus Investigations: International normalized ratio (INR) Decreased* *(In anticoagulated patients, CLINOLIPID injection may lower the INR) Read the Clinolipid (lipid injectable emulsion for intravenous use) Side Effects Center for a complete guide to possible side effectsLearn More »

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Use of an Inline Filter Fragments of the administration port membrane could be dislodged into the bag after spiking. Use a 1.2 micron inline filter during administration of CLINOLIPID injection (alone or as part of an admixture) to remove particulate matter or micro-precipitate contamination during administration of CLINOLIPID injection (alone or as part of an admixture). Particulate matter > 5 microns has the capability of obstructing blood flow through capillaries, which could lead to embolism and vascular occlusion. Do not use filters of less than 1.2 micron pore size with lipid emulsions. Important Administration Instructions Before opening the overwrap, check the color of the oxygen indicator. Compare color of the indicator to the reference color printed next to the OK symbol depicted in the printed area of the indicator label. Do not use the product if the color of the oxygen absorber/indicator does not correspond to the reference color printed next to the OK symbol. After opening the bag, use the contents immediately and do not store for a subsequent infusion. Visually inspect that the emulsion is a homogeneous liquid with a milky appearance. Inspect for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration, whenever solution and container permit. Do not connect flexible bags in series to avoid air embolism due to possible residual gas contained in the primary bag. Air embolism can result if residual gas in the bag is not fully evacuated prior to administration if the flexible bag is pressurized to increase flow rates. Use of a vented intravenous administration set with the vent in the open position could result in air embolism. If CLINOLIPID injection is mixed with dextrose and/or amino acid solutions, check the compatibility before administration by inspecting the mixture closely for the presence of precipitates. Formation of precipitates could result in vascular occlusion. When infused alone, CLINOLIPID injection can be administered via central or peripheral vein. When administered with dextrose and amino acids, the choice of a central or peripheral venous route should depending on the osmolarity of the final infusate. Do not use administration sets and lines that contain di-2-ehtylhexyl phthalate (DEHP). Mixing Guidelines Prepare the admixture using strict aseptic techniques to avoid microbial contamination. Do not add additives directly to CLINOLIPID injection. Do not add CLINOLIPID injection to the total parenteral nutrition container first; destabilization of the lipid may occur from such an admixture. Do not use the EXACTAMIX Inlet H938173 with an EXACTAMIX compounder to transfer CLINOLIPID injection. This inlet spike has been associated with dislodgement of the administration port membrane into the CLINOLIPID injection bag. The following proper mixing sequence must be followed to minimize pH related problems by ensuring that typically acidic Dextrose Injections are not mixed with lipid emulsions alone:
  1. Transfer Dextrose Injection to the Total Parenteral Nutrition Admixture Container
  2. Transfer Amino Acid Injection
  3. Transfer Lipid Emulsion
Amino Acid Injection, Dextrose Injection and Lipid Emulsions may be simultaneously transferred to the admixture container. Use gentle agitation during admixing to minimize localized concentration effects; shake bags gently after each addition. The prime destabilizers of emulsions are excessive acidity (such as a pH below 5) and inappropriate electrolyte content. Give careful consideration to additions of divalent cations (Ca++ and Mg++), which have been shown to cause emulsion instability. Amino acid solutions exert buffering effects that protect the emulsion. Inspect the admixture closely for separation of the emulsion. This can be visibly identified by a yellowish streaking or the accumulation of yellowish droplets in the admixed emulsion. The admixture should also be examined for particulates. Discard the admixture if any of the above is observed. Dosing Considerations The dosing of CLINOLIPID injection depends on energy expenditure, the patient's clinical status, body weight, tolerance, and ability to metabolize CLINOLIPID injection, as well as additional energy given orally/enterally to the patient. For complete parenteral nutrition, concomitant supplementation with amino acids, carbohydrates, electrolytes, vitamins, and trace elements is necessary. Prior to administration of CLINOLIPID injection, correct severe water and electrolyte disorders, severe fluid overload states, and severe metabolic disorders. Before starting the infusion, obtain serum triglyceride levels to establish the baseline value. In patients with elevated triglyceride levels, initiate CLINOLIPID injection at a lower dose, and advance in smaller increments, checking the triglyceride levels prior to each adjustment. Adjust the administration flow rate by taking into account the dose being administered, the daily volume intake, and the duration of the infusion [see OVERDOSAGE]. The recommended duration of infusion for a parenteral nutrition bag is between 12 and 24 hours, depending on the clinical situation. Treatment with parenteral nutrition may be continued for as long as is required by the patient's condition. The maximum daily dose of CLINOLIPID injection should be based on individual total nutritional requirements and patient tolerance. The usual lipid dosage is 1 to 1.5 g/kg/day (equal to 5 to 7.5 mL/kg/day of CLINOLIPID 20%) 1. The daily dose should not exceed 2.5 g/kg/day. The initial infusion rate should not exceed 0.1 g (equal to 0.5 mL) per minute for the first 15 to 30 minutes. If tolerated, gradually increase until reaching the required rate after 30 minutes.

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No drug interaction studies have been performed with CLINOLIPID injection. Olive and soybean oils have a natural content of Vitamin K1 that may counteract the anticoagulant activity of coumarin derivatives, including warfarin. Last reviewed on RxList: 10/18/2013
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

Source: http://www.rxlist.com

CLINOLIPID injection is indicated in adults for providing a source of calories and essential fatty acids for parenteral nutrition when oral or enteral nutrition is not possible, insufficient, or contraindicated. Limitations of Use CLINOLIPID injection is not indicated for use in pediatric patients because there is insufficient data to demonstrate that CLINOLIPID injection provides sufficient amounts of essential fatty acids in this population. [See Use In Specific Populations] The omega-3: omega-6 fatty acid ratio in CLINOLIPID injection has not been shown to improve clinical outcomes compared to other intravenous lipid emulsions. [See Clinical Studies]

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The use of CLINOLIPID injection is contraindicated in patients with the following:
  • Known hypersensitivity to egg or soybean proteins or to any of the ingredients, including excipients.
  • Severe hyperlipidemia (serum triglyceride concentrations above 1000 mg/dL) or severe disorders of lipid metabolism characterized by hypertriglyceridemia.
Last reviewed on RxList: 10/18/2013
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

Source: http://www.rxlist.com

In the event of overdose, fat overload syndrome may result [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]. Stop the infusion to allow lipids to clear from serum. The effects are usually reversible after the lipid infusion is stopped. If medically appropriate, further intervention may be indicated. The lipid administered and fatty acids produced are not dialyzable.

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Dosage Forms And Strengths CLINOLIPID injection is a lipid emulsion for intravenous infusion. The lipid content is 0.20 g/mL. Storage And Handling CLINOLIPID Lipid Injectable Emulsion, USP is supplied in 1000 mL CLARITY polyolefin bag as follows: EADB9524 NDC 0338-9540-04 1000 mL 1 Bag
EADB9524 NDC 0338-9540-08 1000 mL/bag 6 Pack The CLARITY Container is a lipid-compatible plastic container (PL 2401-1). The bag is packaged in an oxygen barrier overpouch, which contains an oxygen absorber / oxygen indicator sachet. CLINOLIPID injection should be stored at 20 to 25°C (68 to 77°F). Excursion permitted to 15 to 30°C (59 to 86°F). See USP Controlled Room Temperature. Protect from freezing. Avoid excessive heat. Store in overpouch until ready to use. REFERENCES 1. Mirtallo J, Canada T, Johnson D, Kumpf V, Petersen C, Sacks G, et al. Task Force for the Revision of Safe Practices for Parenteral Nutrition, Special Report: safe practices for parenteral nutrition. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 2004, 28(6 Suppl) Baxter Healthcare Corporation, Deerfield, IL 60015 USA. Revised: October 2013 Last reviewed on RxList: 10/18/2013
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

Source: http://www.rxlist.com

Death in Preterm Infants Deaths in preterm infants after infusion of intravenous lipid emulsions have been reported. Autopsy findings included intravascular lipid accumulation in the lungs. Preterm and small for gestational age infants have poor clearance of intravenous lipid emulsion and increased free fatty acid plasma levels following lipid emulsion infusion. The safe and effective use of CLINOLIPID injection in pediatric patients, including preterm infants, has not been established. CLINOLIPID injection is not indicated for and not recommended for use in pediatric patients. Hypersensitivity Reactions Stop infusion immediately and treat patient accordingly if signs or symptoms of a hypersensitivity or allergic reaction develop. Signs or symptoms may include: tachypnea, dyspnea, hypoxia, bronchospasm, tachycardia, hypotension, cyanosis, vomiting, nausea, headache, sweating, dizziness, altered mentation, flushing, rash, urticaria, erythema, pyrexia and chills. Infections Patients who require parenteral nutrition are at high risk of infections due to malnutrition and their underlying disease state. Infection and sepsis may occur as a result of the use of intravenous catheters to administer parenteral nutrition, poor maintenance of catheters, or immunosuppressive effects of illness, drugs, and parenteral formulations. Decrease the risk of septic complications with heightened emphasis on aseptic technique in catheter placement and maintenance, as well as aseptic technique in the preparation of the nutritional formula. Carefully monitor for signs and symptoms (including fever and chills) of early infections, including laboratory test results (including leukocytosis and hyperglycemia) and frequent checks of the parenteral access device. Fat Overload Syndrome Fat overload syndrome is a rare condition that has been reported with intravenous lipid formulations. A reduced or limited ability to metabolize the lipids contained in CLINOLIPID injection accompanied by prolonged plasma clearance may result in a syndrome characterized by a sudden deterioration in the patient's condition accompanied by fever, anemia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, coagulation disorders, hyperlipidemia, liver fatty infiltration (hepatomegaly), deteriorating liver function, and central nervous system manifestations (e.g., coma). The cause of the fat overload syndrome is unclear. The syndrome is usually reversible when the infusion of the lipid emulsion is stopped. Although it has been most frequently observed when the recommended lipid dose was exceeded, cases have also been described where the lipid formulation was administered according to instructions. Refeeding Syndrome Refeeding severely undernourished patients with parenteral nutrition may result in the refeeding syndrome, characterized by the intracellular shift of potassium, phosphorus, and magnesium as the patient becomes anabolic. Thiamine deficiency and fluid retention may also develop. Carefully monitor severely undernourished patients and slowly increase their nutrient intakes, while avoiding overfeeding, to prevent these complications. Monitoring/Laboratory Tests Routine Monitoring Monitor fluid status closely in patients with pulmonary edema or heart failure. Monitor serum triglycerides, fluid and electrolyte status, serum osmolarity, blood glucose, liver and kidney function, and blood count, including platelets and coagulation parameters, throughout treatment. Essential Fatty Acids Monitoring patients for signs and symptoms of essential fatty acid deficiency (EFAD) is recommended. Laboratory tests are available to determine serum fatty acids levels. Reference values should be consulted to help determine adequacy of essential fatty acid status. Increasing essential fatty acid intake (enterally or parenterally) is effective in treating and preventing EFAD. In CLINOLIPID injection, the mean composition of linoleic acid (an omega-6 essential fatty acid) is 35.8 mg/mL (range 27.6 - 44.0 mg/mL) and a-linolenic acid (an omega-3 essential fatty acid) is 4.7 mg/mL (range 1.0 - 8.4 mg/mL). There are insufficient long-term data to determine whether CLINOLIPID 20% can supply essential fatty acids in adequate amounts in patients who may have increased requirements. Interference with Laboratory Tests Content of Vitamin K may counteract anticoagulant activity [see DRUG INTERACTIONS]. The lipids contained in this emulsion may interfere with the results of certain laboratory tests if the blood sample is taken before the lipids are eliminated from the serum (these are generally eliminated after a period of 5 to 6 hours without receiving lipids). Aluminum Toxicity CLINOLIPID injection contains no more than 25 mcg/L of aluminum. The aluminum contained in CLINOLIPID injection may reach toxic levels with prolonged administration in patients with impaired kidney function. Preterm infants are at greater risk because their kidneys are immature, and they require large amounts of calcium and phosphate solutions that contain aluminum. Patients with impaired kidney function, including preterm infants, who receive parenteral levels of aluminum at greater than 4 to 5 mcg/kg/day, accumulate aluminum at levels associated with central nervous system and bone toxicity. Tissue loading may occur at even lower rates of administration of total parenteral nutrition products. Risk of Parenteral Nutrition Associated Liver Disease Parenteral Nutrition Associated Liver Disease (PNALD) has been reported in patients who receive parenteral nutrition for extended periods of time, especially preterm infants, and can present as cholestasis or steatohepatitis1. The exact etiology is unknown and is likely multifactorial. Intravenously administered phytosterols (plant sterols) contained in plant-derived lipid formulations have been associated with development of PNALD although a causal relationship has not been clearly established. If CLINOLIPID injection treated patients develop liver test abnormalities consider discontinuation or dose reduction. Hypertriglyceridemia Reduce dose of CLINOLIPID injection and monitor serum triglyceride levels in patients with serum triglyceride concentrations above 400 mg/dL to avoid the clinical consequences associated with hypertriglyceridemia. Serum triglyceride levels above 1000 mg/dL have been associated with an increased risk of pancreatitis. REFERENCES 1. Mirtallo J, Canada T, Johnson D, Kumpf V, Petersen C, Sacks G, et al. Task Force for the Revision of Safe Practices for Parenteral Nutrition, Special Report: safe practices for parenteral nutrition. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 2004, 28(6 Suppl) Nonclinical Toxicology Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility. Studies with CLINOLIPID injection have not been performed to evaluate the carcinogenic potential, mutagenic potential, or effects on fertility. Animal Toxicology and/or Pharmacology CLINOLIPID injection was evaluated in toxicity studies conducted in rats and dogs for up to 3 months. The principle signs of toxicity noted in the 3-month studies were:
  • Slight hemolytic anemia at 12 g/kg/day in rats and at 6 g/kg/day in dogs. These doses in rats and dogs are 4.8 and 2.4 times higher, respectively, than the recommended adult dose (2.5 g/kg/day) of CLINOLIPID injection.
  • Dose-dependent decrease in urea levels in rats at 6 and 12 g/kg/day dose levels and in dogs at 3, 4.5 and 6 g/kg/day dose levels associated with decreased feed consumption.
  • Hypercholesterolemia in dogs at 3, 4.5 and 6 g/kg/day dose levels.
  • Hepatic pathology of lipid and pigmentary overload in male and female rats at 3, 6 and 12 g/kg/day dose levels and brownish-yellow pigmentation in vacuolated Kupffer cells in male and female dogs at 3, 4.5 and 6 g/kg/day dose levels with hepatocyte vacuolation in male dogs at 6 g/kg/day and female dogs at 4.5 and 6 g/kg/day dose levels.
  • Splenic pigmentation and vacuolization in rats at 3, 6 and 12 g/kg/day dose levels, and dogs in 4.5 and 6 g/kg/day dose levels.
At doses of 3 g/kg/day, slight lipid and pigmentary overload of the liver and vacuolization of Kupffer cells were observed in rats and dogs. At a dose of 12 g/kg/day in rats, hepatocellular vacuolation, granulomatous inflammation of the liver, hepatocellular necrosis and hemosiderosis of the liver and lipid deposits and splenic hemosiderosis, were observed. In dogs, at a dose of 6 g/kg/day, brownish-yellow pigmentation in the Kupffer cells of liver and spleen, hyperplasia of vacuolated Kupffer cells, hepatocyte vacuolization, a slight increase in the number of lipid storage cells (Ito cells) in the liver and macrophage vacuolization of the spleen were observed. Use In Specific Populations Pregnancy Pregnancy Category C Risk Summary There are no adequate and/or well-controlled studies with CLINOLIPID injection in pregnant women. Animal reproduction studies have not been conducted with CLINOLIPID injection. It is also not known whether CLINOLIPID injection can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman or can affect reproduction capacity. CLINOLIPID injection should be given to a pregnant woman only if clearly needed. It is not known whether the administration of CLINOLIPID injection 20% to pregnant women provides adequate essential fatty acids to the developing fetus. Nursing Mothers It is not known whether CLINOLIPID injection is present in human milk. Because many drugs are present in human milk, exercise caution when CLINOLIPID injection is administered to a nursing woman. Pediatric Use The safety and effectiveness of CLINOLIPID injection have not been established in pediatric patients. LINOLIPID injection is not indicated for use in pediatric patients. Pediatric studies did not establish that CLINOLIPID injection provides sufficient amounts of essential fatty acids (EFA) in pediatric patients. Pediatric patients may be particularly vulnerable to neurologic complications due to EFA deficiency if adequate amounts of EFA are not provided. Deaths in preterm infants after infusion of intravenous lipid emulsion have been reported [See WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]. Patients, particularly preterm infants, are at risk for aluminum toxicity [See WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]. Patients, including pediatric patients, may be at risk for PNALD [See WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]. In clinical trials of a pure soybean oil based intravenous lipid emulsion product, thrombocytopenia in neonates occurred ( < 1%). Geriatric Use Of the total number of subjects in clinical studies of CLINOLIPID injection, 21% were 65 and over, while 10% were 75 and over. No overall differences in safety or effectiveness were observed between these subjects and younger subjects, and other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients, but greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be ruled out. Hepatic Impairment Parenteral nutrition should be used with caution in patients with hepatic impairment. Hepatobiliary disorders are known to develop in some patients without preexisting liver disease who receive parenteral nutrition, including cholestasis, hepatic steatosis, fibrosis and cirrhosis (parenteral nutrition associated liver disease), possibly leading to hepatic failure. Cholecystitis and cholelithiasis have also been observed. The etiology of these disorders is thought to be multifactorial and may differ between patients. Monitor liver function parameters closely. Patients developing signs of hepatobiliary disorders should be assessed early by a clinician knowledgeable in liver diseases in order to identify causative and contributory factors, and possible therapeutic and prophylactic interventions. Last reviewed on RxList: 10/18/2013
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

Source: http://www.rxlist.com

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