Drug: Acular

ACULAR® (ketorolac tromethamine ophthalmic solution) 0.5% is a member of the pyrrolopyrrole group of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) for ophthalmic use. Its chemical name is (±)-5-Benzoyl-2, 3-dihydro-1H pyrrolizine-1-carboxylic acid compound with 2-amino-2-(hydroxymethyl)-1,3-propanediol (1:1) and it has the following structure: ACULAR® ophthalmic solution is supplied as a sterile isotonic aqueous 0.5% solution, with a pH of 7.4. ACULAR® ophthalmic solution is a racemic mixture of R-(+) and S-(-)- ketorolac tromethamine. Ketorolac tromethamine may exist in three crystal forms. All forms are equally soluble in water. The pKa of ketorolac is 3.5. This white to off-white crystalline substance discolors on prolonged exposure to light. The molecular weight of ketorolac tromethamine is 376.41. The osmolality of ACULAR® ophthalmic solution is 290 mOsmol/kg. Each mL of ACULAR® ophthalmic solution contains: Active: ketorolac tromethamine 0.5%. Preservative: benzalkonium chloride 0.01%. Inactives: edetate disodium 0.1%; octoxynol 40; purified water; sodium chloride; hydrochloric acid and/or sodium hydroxide to adjust the pH.

Source: http://www.rxlist.com

Clinical Studies Experience Because clinical studies are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical studies of a drug cannot be directly compared to the rates in the clinical studies of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice. The most frequent adverse reactions reported with the use of ketorolac tromethamine ophthalmic solutions have been transient stinging and burning on instillation. These reactions were reported by up to 40% of patients participating in clinical trials. Other adverse reactions occurring approximately 1 to 10% of the time during treatment with ketorolac tromethamine ophthalmic solutions included allergic reactions, corneal edema, iritis, ocular inflammation, ocular irritation, superficial keratitis, and superficial ocular infections. Other adverse reactions reported rarely with the use of ketorolac tromethamine ophthalmic solutions included: corneal infiltrates, corneal ulcer, eye dryness, headaches, and visual disturbance (blurry vision). Postmarketing Experience The following adverse reactions have been identified during post-marketing use of ketorolac tromethamine ophthalmic solution 0.5% in clinical practice. Because they are reported voluntarily from a population of unknown size, estimates of frequency cannot be made. The reactions, which have been chosen for inclusion due to either their seriousness, frequency of reporting, possible causal connection to topical ketorolac tromethamine ophthalmic solution 0.5% or a combination of these factors, include bronchospasm or exacerbation of asthma, corneal erosion, corneal perforation, corneal thinning, and epithelial breakdown [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]. Read the Acular (ketorolac tromethamine) Side Effects Center for a complete guide to possible side effectsLearn More »

Source: http://www.rxlist.com

Recommended Dosing Patient Dosing The recommended dose of ACULAR® ophthalmic solution is one drop four times a day to the affected eye(s) for relief of ocular itching due to seasonal allergic conjunctivitis. For the treatment of postoperative inflammation in patients who have undergone cataract extraction, one drop of ACULAR® ophthalmic solution should be applied to the affected eye four times daily beginning 24 hours after cataract surgery and continuing through the first 2 weeks of the postoperative period. Use with Other Topical Ophthalmic Medications ACULAR® ophthalmic solution has been safely administered in conjunction with other ophthalmic medications such as antibiotics, alpha-agonists, beta blockers, carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, cycloplegics, and mydriatics. Drops should be administered at least 5 minutes apart.

Source: http://www.rxlist.com

No information provided. Read the Acular Drug Interactions Center for a complete guide to possible interactions Learn More »

Source: http://www.rxlist.com

ACULAR® ophthalmic solution is indicated for the temporary relief of ocular itching due to seasonal allergic conjunctivitis. ACULAR® ophthalmic solution is also indicated for the treatment of postoperative inflammation in patients who have undergone cataract extraction.

Source: http://www.rxlist.com

ACULAR® solution is contraindicated in patients with previously demonstrated hypersensitivity to any of the ingredients in the formulation. Last reviewed on RxList: 6/29/2012
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

Source: http://www.rxlist.com

No information provided.

Source: http://www.rxlist.com

Dosage Forms And Strengths 10 mL size bottle filled with 5 mL of ketorolac tromethamine ophthalmic solution, 0.5% (5 mg/mL) Storage And Handling ACULAR® (ketorolac tromethamine ophthalmic solution) 0.5% is supplied sterile, in white opaque plastic LDPE bottles with white droppers, with gray high impact polystyrene (HIPS) caps as follows: 5 mL in 10 mL bottle NDC 0023-2181-05 Storage Store at 15° - 25°C (59° - 77°F). Protect from light. ACULAR® is manufactured and distributed by Allergan, Inc. under license from its developer, Roche Palo Alto LLC, Palo Alto, CA, U.S.A. Revised: 5/12 Last reviewed on RxList: 6/29/2012
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

Source: http://www.rxlist.com

Delayed Healing Topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may slow or delay healing. Topical corticosteroids are also known to slow or delay healing. Concomitant use of topical NSAIDs and topical steroids may increase the potential for healing problems. Cross-Sensitivity or Hypersensitivity There is the potential for cross-sensitivity to acetylsalicylic acid, phenylacetic acid derivatives, and other NSAIDs. There have been reports of bronchospasm or exacerbation of asthma associated with the use of ketorolac tromethamine ophthalmic solution in patients who have either a known hypersensitivity to aspirin/non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or a past medical history of asthma. Therefore, caution should be used when treating individuals who have previously exhibited sensitivities to these drugs. Increased Bleeding Time With some NSAIDs, there exists the potential for increased bleeding time due to interference with thrombocyte aggregation. There have been reports that ocularly applied nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs may cause increased bleeding of ocular tissues (including hyphemas) in conjunction with ocular surgery. It is recommended that ACULAR® ophthalmic solution be used with caution in patients with known bleeding tendencies or who are receiving other medications, which may prolong bleeding time. Corneal Effects Use of topical NSAIDs may result in keratitis. In some susceptible patients, continued use of topical NSAIDs may result in epithelial breakdown, corneal thinning, corneal erosion, corneal ulceration, or corneal perforation. These events may be sight threatening. Patients with evidence of corneal epithelial breakdown should immediately discontinue use of topical NSAIDs and should be closely monitored for corneal health. Postmarketing experience with topical NSAIDs suggests that patients with complicated ocular surgeries, corneal denervation, corneal epithelial defects, diabetes mellitus, ocular surface diseases (e.g., dry eye syndrome), rheumatoid arthritis, or repeat ocular surgeries within a short period of time may be at increased risk for corneal adverse events which may become sight threatening. Topical NSAIDs should be used with caution in these patients. Postmarketing experience with topical NSAIDs also suggests that use more than 1 day prior to surgery or use beyond 14 days post-surgery may increase patient risk for the occurrence and severity of corneal adverse events. Contact Lens Wear ACULAR® should not be administered while wearing contact lenses. Nonclinical Toxicology Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility Ketorolac tromethamine was not carcinogenic in either rats given up to 5 mg/kg/day orally for 24 months or in mice given 2 mg/kg/day orally for 18 months. These doses are approximately 125 times and 50 times higher respectively than the maximum recommended human topical ophthalmic daily dose given as QID for itching to affected eyes on a mg/kg basis. Ketorolac tromethamine was not mutagenic in vitro in the Ames assay or in forward mutation assays. Similarly, it did not result in an in vitro increase in unscheduled DNA synthesis or an in vivo increase in chromosome breakage in mice. However, ketorolac tromethamine did result in an increased incidence in chromosomal aberrations in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Ketorolac tromethamine did not impair fertility when administered orally to male and female rats at doses up to 9 mg/kg/day and 16 mg/kg/day, respectively. These doses are respectively 225 and 400 times higher than the typical human topical ophthalmic daily dose. Use In Specific Populations Pregnancy Teratogenic Effects - Pregnancy Category C Ketorolac tromethamine, administered during organogenesis, was not teratogenic in rabbits and rats at oral doses of 3.6 mg/kg/day and 10 mg/kg/day, respectively. These doses are approximately 100 times and 250 times higher respectively than the maximum recommended human topical ophthalmic daily dose of 2 mg (5 mg/mL x 0.05 mL/drop, x 4 drops x 2 eyes) to affected eyes on a mg/kg basis. Additionally, when administered to rats after Day 17 of gestation at oral doses up to 1.5 mg/kg/day (approximately 40 times the typical human topical ophthalmic daily dose), ketorolac tromethamine resulted in dystocia and increased pup mortality. There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. ACULAR® solution should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus. Nonteratogenic Effects Because of the known effects of prostaglandin-inhibiting drugs on the fetal cardiovascular system (closure of the ductus arteriosus), the use of ACULAR®solution during late pregnancy should be avoided. Nursing Mothers Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised when ACULAR® is administered to a nursing woman. Pediatric Use Safety and efficacy in pediatric patients below the age of 2 have not been established. Geriatric Use No overall clinical differences in safety or effectiveness have been observed between elderly and other adult patients. Last reviewed on RxList: 6/29/2012
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

Source: http://www.rxlist.com

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