Fetal Toxicity Corlanor may cause fetal toxicity when administered to a pregnant woman based on findings in animal studies. Embryo-fetal toxicity and cardiac teratogenic effects were observed in fetuses of pregnant rats treated during organogenesis at exposures 1 to 3 times the human exposures (AUC0-24hr) at the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) [see Use in Specific Populations]. Advise females to use effective contraception when taking Corlanor [see Use in Specific Populations]. Atrial Fibrillation Corlanor increases the risk of atrial fibrillation. In SHIFT, the rate of atrial fibrillation was 5.0% per patient-year in patients treated with Corlanor and 3.9% per patient-year in patients treated with placebo [see Clinical Studies]. Regularly monitor cardiac rhythm. Discontinue Corlanor if atrial fibrillation develops. Bradycardia And Conduction Disturbances Bradycardia, sinus arrest, and heart block have occurred with Corlanor. The rate of bradycardia was 6.0% per patient-year in patients treated with Corlanor (2.7% symptomatic; 3.4% asymptomatic) and 1.3% per patient-year in patients treated with placebo. Risk factors for bradycardia include sinus node dysfunction, conduction defects (e.g., 1st or 2nd degree atrioventricular block, bundle branch block), ventricular dyssynchrony, and use of other negative chronotropes (e.g., digoxin, diltiazem, verapamil, amiodarone). Concurrent use of verapamil or diltiazem will increase Corlanor exposure, may themselves contribute to heart rate lowering, and should be avoided [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY]. Avoid use of Corlanor in patients with 2nd degree atrioventricular block, unless a functioning demand pacemaker is present [see CONTRAINDICATIONS and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION]. Patient Counseling Information Advise the patient to read the FDA-approved patient labeling (Medication Guide).
- Fetal Toxicity
Advise pregnant women of the potential risks to a fetus.
Advise females of reproductive potential to use effective contraception and to notify their healthcare provider with a known or suspected pregnancy [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS and Use in Specific Populations].
- Low Heart Rate
Advise patients to report significant decreases in heart rate or symptoms such as dizziness, fatigue, or hypotension [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
- Atrial fibrillation
Advise patients to report symptoms of atrial fibrillation, such as heart palpitations or racing, chest pressure, or worsened shortness of breath [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Advise patients about the possible occurrence of luminous phenomena (phosphenes). Advise patients to use caution if they are driving or using machines in situations where sudden changes in light intensity may occur, especially when driving at night. Advise patients that phosphenes may subside spontaneously during continued treatment with Corlanor [see ADVERSE REACTIONS].
- Drug Interactions
Advise patients to avoid ingestion of grapefruit juice and St. John's wort [see DRUG INTERACTIONS].
- Intake with Food
Advise patients to take Corlanor twice daily with meals [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION].
Nonclinical Toxicology Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment Of Fertility There was no evidence of carcinogenicity when mice and rats received ivabradine up to 104 weeks by dietary administration. High doses in these studies were associated with mean ivabradine exposures of at least 37 times higher than the human exposure (AUC0-24hr) at the MRHD. Ivabradine tested negative in the following assays: bacterial reverse mutation (Ames) assay, in vivo bone marrow micronucleus assay in both mouse and rat, in vivo chromosomal aberration assay in rats, and in vivo unscheduled DNA synthesis assay in rats. Results of the in vitro chromosomal aberration assay were equivocal at concentrations approximately 1,500 times the human Cmax at the MRHD. Ivabradine tested positive in the mouse lymphoma assays and in vitro unscheduled DNA synthesis assay in rat hepatocytes at concentrations greater than 1,500 times the human Cmax at the MRHD. Reproduction toxicity studies in animals demonstrated that ivabradine did not affect fertility in male or female rats at exposures 46 to 133 times the human exposure (AUC0-24hr) at the MRHD. Use In Specific Populations Pregnancy Risk Summary Based on findings in animals, Corlanor may cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. There are no adequate and well-controlled studies of Corlanor in pregnant women to inform any drug-associated risks. In animal reproduction studies, oral administration of ivabradine to pregnant rats during organogenesis at a dosage providing 1 to 3 times the human exposure (AUC0-24hr) at the MRHD resulted in embryo-fetal toxicity and teratogenicity manifested as abnormal shape of the heart, interventricular septal defect, and complex anomalies of primary arteries. Increased postnatal mortality was associated with these teratogenic effects in rats. In pregnant rabbits, increased post-implantation loss was noted at an exposure (AUC0-24hr) 5 times the human exposure at the MRHD. Lower doses were not tested in rabbits. The background risk of major birth defects for the indicated population is unknown. The estimated background risk of major birth defects in the U.S. general population is 2 to 4%, however, and the estimated risk of miscarriage is 15 to 20% in clinically recognized pregnancies. Advise a pregnant woman of the potential risk to the fetus. Clinical Considerations Disease-Associated Maternal and/or Embryo/Fetal Risk Stroke volume and heart rate increase during pregnancy, increasing cardiac output, especially during the first trimester. Pregnant patients with left ventricular ejection fraction less than 35% on maximally tolerated doses of beta-blockers may be particularly heart-rate dependent for augmenting cardiac output. Therefore, pregnant patients who are started on Corlanor, especially during the first trimester, should be followed closely for destabilization of their congestive heart failure that could result from heart rate slowing. Monitor pregnant women with chronic heart failure in 3rd trimester of pregnancy for preterm birth. Data Animal Data In pregnant rats, oral administration of ivabradine during the period of organogenesis (gestation day 6-15) at doses of 2.3, 4.6, 9.3, or 19 mg/kg/day resulted in fetal toxicity and teratogenic effects. Increased intrauterine and post-natal mortality and cardiac malformations were observed at doses ≥ 2.3 mg/kg/day (equivalent to the human exposure at the MRHD based on AUC0-24hr). Teratogenic effects including interventricular septal defect and complex anomalies of major arteries were observed at doses ≥ 4.6 mg/kg/day (approximately 3 times the human exposure at the MRHD based on AUC0-24hr). In pregnant rabbits, oral administration of ivabradine during the period of organogenesis (gestation day 618) at doses of 7, 14, or 28 mg/kg/day resulted in fetal toxicity and teratogenicity. Treatment with all doses ≥ 7 mg/kg/day (equivalent to the human exposure at the MRHD based on AUC0-24hr) caused an increase in post-implantation loss. At the high dose of 28 mg/kg/day (approximately 15 times the human exposure at the MRHD based on AUC0-24hr), reduced fetal and placental weights were observed, and evidence of teratogenicity (ectrodactylia observed in 2 of 148 fetuses from 2 of 18 litters) was demonstrated. In the pre-and postnatal study, pregnant rats received oral administration of ivabradine at doses of 2.5, 7, or 20 mg/kg/day from gestation day 6 to lactation day 20. Increased postnatal mortality associated with cardiac teratogenic findings was observed in the F1 pups delivered by dams treated at the high dose (approximately 15 times the human exposure at the MRHD based on AUC0-24hr). Lactation Risk Summary There is no information regarding the presence of ivabradine in human milk, the effects of ivabradine on the breastfed infant, or the effects of the drug on milk production. Animal studies have shown, however, that ivabradine is present in rat milk [see Data]. Because of the potential risk to breastfed infants from exposure to Corlanor, breastfeeding is not recommended. Data Lactating rats received daily oral doses of [14C]-ivabradine (7 mg/kg) on post-parturition days 10 to 14; milk and maternal plasma were collected at 0.5 and 2.5 hours post-dose on day 14. The ratios of total radioactivity associated with [14C]-ivabradine or its metabolites in milk vs. plasma were 1.5 and 1.8, respectively, indicating that ivabradine is transferred to milk after oral administration. Females And Males Of Reproductive Potential Contraception Females Corlanor may cause fetal harm, based on animal data. Advise females of reproductive potential to use effective contraception during Corlanor treatment [see Use In Specific Populations]. Pediatric Use Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established. Geriatric Use No pharmacokinetic differences have been observed in elderly ( ≥ 65 years) or very elderly ( ≥ 75 years) patients compared to the overall population. However, Corlanor has only been studied in a limited number of patients ≥ 75 years of age. Hepatic Impairment No dose adjustment is required in patients with mild or moderate hepatic impairment. Corlanor is contraindicated in patients with severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh C) as it has not been studied in this population and an increase in systemic exposure is anticipated [see CONTRAINDICATIONS and CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY]. Renal Impairment No dosage adjustment is required for patients with creatinine clearance 15 to 60 mL/min. No data are available for patients with creatinine clearance below 15 mL/min [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY]. Last reviewed on RxList: 4/27/2015
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.