Drug: Dilatrate SR

Isosorbide dinitrate (ISDN) is 1,4:3,6-dianhydro-D-glucitol 2,5 dinitrate, an organic nitrate whose structural formula is and whose molecular weight is 236.14. The organic nitrates are vasodilators, active on both arteries and veins. Each dilatrate®-SR sustained release capsule contains 40 mg of isosorbide dinitrate, in a microdialysis delivery system that causes the active drug to be released over an extended period. Each capsule also contains ethylcellulose, lactose, pharmaceutical glaze, starch, sucrose and talc. The capsule shells contain D&C Red 33, D&C Yellow 10, gelatin and titanium dioxide.Last reviewed on RxList: 12/3/2014
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

Source: http://www.rxlist.com

Adverse reactions to isosorbide dinitrate are generally dose related, and almost all of these reactions are the result of isosorbide dinitrate's activity as a vasodilator. Headache, which may be severe, is the most commonly reported side effect. Headache may be recurrent with each daily dose, especially at higher doses. Transient episodes of lightheadedness, occasionally related to blood pressure changes, may also occur. Hypotension occurs infrequently, but in some patients it may be severe enough to warrant discontinuation of therapy. Syncope, crescendo angina, and rebound hypertension have been reported but are uncommon. Extremely rarely, ordinary doses of organic nitrates have caused methemoglobinemia in normal-seeming patients. Methemoglobinemia is so infrequent at these doses that further discussion of its diagnosis and treatment is deferred (see OVERDOSAGE). Data are not available to allow estimation of the frequency of adverse reactions during treatment with dilatrate®-SR sustained release capsules. Read the Dilatrate SR (isosorbide dinitrate sustained release capsules) Side Effects Center for a complete guide to possible side effectsLearn More »

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As noted above (CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY), multiple studies with ISDN and other nitrates have shown that maintenance of continuous 24-hour plasma levels results in refractory tolerance. Every dosing regimen for organic nitrates including dilatrate®-SR must provide a daily nitrate-free interval to avoid the development of tolerance. To achieve the necessary nitrate-free interval with immediate-release oral ISDN, it appears that at least one of the daily interdose intervals must be at least 14 hours long. The necessary interdose interval for dilatrate®-SR has not been clearly identified, but it must be greater than 18 hours. As noted under Clinical Pharmacology, only one trial has ever studied the use of extended-release isosorbide dinitrate for more than one dose. In that trial, 40 mg of dilatrate®-SR was administered twice daily in doses given 6 hours apart. After 4 weeks, dilatrate®-SR could not be distinguished from placebo. Large controlled studies with other nitrates suggest that no dosing regimen with dilatrate®-SR should be expected to provide more than about 12 hours of continuous antianginal efficacy per day. In clinical trials, immediate-release oral isosorbide dinitrate has been administered in a variety of regimens, with total daily doses ranging from 30 to 480 mg. Do not exceed 160 mg (4 capsules) per day.

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Concomitant use of dilatrate®-SR with phosphodiesterase inhibitors in any form is contraindicated (see CONTRAINDICATIONS). Concomitant use of dilatrate®-SR with riociguat, a soluble guanylate cyclase stimulator, is contraindicated (see CONTRAINDICATIONS). The vasodilating effects of isosorbide dinitrate may be additive with those of other vasodilators. Alcohol, in particular, has been found to exhibit additive effects of this variety. Last reviewed on RxList: 12/3/2014
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

Source: http://www.rxlist.com

Dilatrate®-SR sustained release capsules are indicated for the prevention of angina pectoris due to coronary artery disease. The onset of action of controlled-release oral isosorbide dinitrate is not sufficiently rapid for this product to be useful in aborting an acute anginal episode.

Source: http://www.rxlist.com

Isosorbide dinitrate is contraindicated in patients who are allergic to it. Do not use dilatrate®-SR in patients who are taking certain drugs for erectile dysfunction (phosphodiesterase inhibitors), such as sildenafil, tadalafil, vardenafil, or avanafil. Concomitant use can cause severe hypotension, syncope, or myocardial ischemia. Do not use dilatrate®-SR in patients who are taking the soluble guanylate cyclase stimulator riociguat. Concomitant use can cause hypotension.Last reviewed on RxList: 12/3/2014
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

Source: http://www.rxlist.com

Hemodynamic Effects The ill effects of isosorbide dinitrate overdose are generally the results of isosorbide dinitrate's capacity to induce vasodilatation, venous pooling, reduced cardiac output, and hypotension. These hemodynamic changes may have protean manifestations, including increased intracranial pressure, with any or all of persistent throbbing headache, confusion, and moderate fever; vertigo; palpitations; visual disturbances; nausea and vomiting (possibly with colic and even bloody diarrhea); syncope (especially in the upright posture); air hunger and dyspnea, later followed by reduced ventilatory effort; diaphoresis, with the skin either flushed or cold and clammy; heart block and bradycardia; paralysis; coma; seizures and death. Laboratory determinations of serum levels of isosorbide dinitrate and its metabolites are not widely available, and such determinations have, in any event, no established role in the management of isosorbide dinitrate overdose. There are no data suggesting what dose of isosorbide dinitrate is likely to be life-threatening in humans. In rats, the median acute lethal dose (LD50) was found to be 1100 mg/kg. No data are available to suggest physiological maneuvers (e.g., maneuvers to change the pH of the urine) that might accelerate elimination of isosorbide dinitrate and its active metabolites. Similarly, it is not known which, if any, of these substances can usefully be removed from the body by hemodialysis. No specific antagonist to the vasodilator effects of isosorbide dinitrate is known, and no intervention has been subject to controlled study as a therapy of isosorbide dinitrate overdose. Because the hypotension associated with isosorbide dinitrate overdose is the result of venodilatation and arterial hypovolemia, prudent therapy in this situation should be directed toward an increase in central fluid volume. Passive elevation of the patient's legs may be sufficient, but intravenous infusion of normal saline or similar fluid may also be necessary. The use of epinephrine or other arterial vasoconstrictors in this setting is likely to do more harm than good. In patients with renal disease or congestive heart failure, therapy resulting in central volume expansion is not without hazard. Treatment of isosorbide dinitrate overdose in these patients may be subtle and difficult, and invasive monitoring may be required. Methemoglobinemia Nitrate ions liberated during metabolism of isosorbide dinitrate can oxidize hemoglobin into methemoglobin. Even in patients totally without cytochrome b5 reductase activity, however, and even assuming that the nitrate moieties of isosorbide dinitrate are quantitatively applied to oxidation of hemoglobin, about 1 mg/kg of isosorbide dinitrate should be required before any of these patients manifests clinically significant ( ≥ 10%) methemoglobinemia. In patients with normal reductase function, significant production of methemoglobin should require even larger doses of isosorbide dinitrate. In one study in which 36 patients received 2-4 weeks of continuous nitroglycerin therapy at 3.1 to 4.4 mg/hr (equivalent, in total administered dose of nitrate ions, to 4.8-6.9 mg of bioavailable isosorbide dinitrate per hour), the average methemoglobin level measured was 0.2%; this was comparable to that observed in parallel patients who received placebo.Notwithstanding these observations, there are case reports of significant methemoglobinemia in association with moderate overdoses of organic nitrates. None of the affected patients had been thought to be unusually susceptible. Methemoglobin levels are available from most clinical laboratories. The diagnosis should be suspected in patients who exhibit signs of impaired oxygen delivery despite adequate cardiac output and adequate arterial pO2. Classically, methemoglobinemic blood is described as chocolate brown, without color change on exposure to air. When methemoglobinemia is diagnosed, the treatment of choice is methylene blue, 1-2 mg/kg intravenously.

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Dilatrate®-SR (isosorbide dinitrate) 40 mg sustained release capsules are opaque pink and colorless capsules with white beadlets and are imprinted “AP” and “0920”. They are supplied as follows: Bottles of 100 NDC 66887-005-10 Store at 20° -25°C (68° -77°F); excursions permitted between 15° -30°C (59° -86°F) [See USP Controlled Room Temperature]. Manufactured for: Auxilium Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Chesterbrook, PA 19087. Revised 10/2014 Last reviewed on RxList: 12/3/2014
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

Source: http://www.rxlist.com

General Severe hypotension, particularly with upright posture, may occur with even small doses of isosorbide dinitrate. This drug should therefore be used with caution in patients who may be volume depleted or who, for whatever reason, are already hypotensive. Hypotension induced by isosorbide dinitrate may be accompanied by paradoxical bradycardia and increased angina pectoris. Nitrate therapy may aggravate the angina caused by hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. As tolerance to isosorbide dinitrate develops, the effect of sublingual nitroglycerin on exercise tolerance, although still observable, is somewhat blunted. Some clinical trials in angina patients have provided nitroglycerin for about 12 continuous hours of every 24-hour day. During the interdosing intervals in some of these trials, anginal attacks have been more easily provoked than before treatment and patients have demonstrated hemodynamic rebound and decreased exercise tolerance. The importance of these observations to the routine, clinical use of controlled-release oral isosorbide dinitrate is not known. In industrial workers who have had long-term exposure to unknown (presumably high) doses of organic nitrates, tolerance clearly occurs. Chest pain, acute myocardial infarction, and even sudden death have occurred during temporary withdrawal of nitrates from these workers demonstrating the existence of true physical dependence. Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis And Impairment Of Fertility No long-term studies in animals have been performed to evaluate the carcinogenic potential of isosorbide dinitrate. In a modified two-litter reproduction study, there was no remarkable gross pathology and no altered fertility or gestation among rats fed isosorbide dinitrate at 25 or 100 mg/kg/day. Pregnancy Category C At oral doses 35 and 150 times the daily Maximum Recommended Human Dose (MRHD), isosorbide dinitrate has been shown to cause a dose related increase in embryotoxicity (increase in mummified pups) in rabbits. There are no adequate, well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Isosorbide dinitrate should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus. Nursing Mothers It is not known whether isosorbide dinitrate is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised when isosorbide dinitrate is administered to a nursing woman. Pediatric Use Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established. Geriatric Use Clinical studies of dilatrate®-SR did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy. Last reviewed on RxList: 12/3/2014
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

Source: http://www.rxlist.com

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