Drug: Avalide

AVALIDE (irbesartan-hydrochlorothiazide) Tablets are a combination of an angiotensin II receptor antagonist (AT1 subtype), irbesartan, and a thiazide diuretic, hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ). Irbesartan is a non-peptide compound, chemically described as a 2-butyl-3-[p-(o-1H-tetrazol-5ylphenyl)benzyl]-1,3-diazaspiro[4.4]non-1-en-4-one. Its empirical formula is C25H28N6O, and its structural formula is: Irbesartan is a white to off-white crystalline powder with a molecular weight of 428.5. It is a nonpolar compound with a partition coefficient (octanol/water) of 10.1 at pH of 7.4. Irbesartan is slightly soluble in alcohol and methylene chloride and practically insoluble in water. Hydrochlorothiazide is 6-chloro-3,4-dihydro-2H-1,2,4-benzothiadiazine-7-sulfonamide 1,1dioxide. Its empirical formula is C7H8ClN3O4S2 and its structural formula is: Hydrochlorothiazide is a white, or practically white, crystalline powder with a molecular weight of 297.7. Hydrochlorothiazide is slightly soluble in water and freely soluble in sodium hydroxide solution. AVALIDE is available for oral administration in film-coated tablets containing either 150 mg or 300 mg of irbesartan combined with 12.5 mg of hydrochlorothiazide. All dosage strengths contain the following inactive ingredients: lactose monohydrate, microcrystalline cellulose, croscarmellose sodium, hypromellose, magnesium stearate, silicon dioxide, ferric oxide red, ferric oxide yellow, polyethylene glycol, titanium dioxide, and carnauba wax.

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Clinical Trials Experience Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice. The adverse reaction information from clinical trials does, however, provide a basis for identifying the adverse events that appear to be related to drug use and for approximating rates. Irbesartan-Hydrochlorothiazide AVALIDE Tablets have been evaluated for safety in 1694 patients treated for essential hypertension in 6 clinical trials. In Studies I through IV with AVALIDE, no adverse events peculiar to this combination drug product have been observed. Adverse events have been limited to those that were reported previously with irbesartan or hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ). The overall incidence of adverse events was similar with the combination and placebo. In general, treatment with AVALIDE was well tolerated. For the most part, adverse events have been mild and transient in nature and have not required discontinuation of therapy. In controlled clinical trials, discontinuation of AVALIDE therapy due to clinical adverse events was required in only 3.6%. This incidence was significantly less (p=0.023) than the 6.8% of patients treated with placebo who discontinued therapy. In these double-blind controlled clinical trials, the following adverse events reported with AVALIDE occurred in ≥ 1% of patients, and more often on the irbesartan-hydrochlorothiazide combination than on placebo, regardless of drug relationship:   Irbesartan/HCTZ
(n=898)
(%) Placebo
(n=236)
(%) Irbesartan
(n=400)
(%) HCTZ
(n=380)
(%) Body as a Whole   Chest Pain 2 1 2 2   Fatigue 6 3 4 3   Influenza 3 1 2 2 Cardiovascular   Edema 3 3 2 2   Tachycardia 1 0 1 1 Gastrointestinal   Abdominal Pain 2 1 2 2   Dyspepsia/heartburn 2 1 0 2   Nausea/vomiting 3 0 2 2 Immunology   Allergy 1 0 1 1 Musculoskeletal   Musculoskeletal Pain 6 5 6 10 Nervous System   Dizziness 8 4 6 5   Dizziness Orthostatic 1 0 1 1 Renal/Genitourinary   Abnormality Urination 2 1 1 2 The following adverse events were also reported at a rate of 1% or greater, but were as, or more, common in the placebo group: headache, sinus abnormality, cough, URI, pharyngitis, diarrhea, rhinitis, urinary tract infection, rash, anxiety/nervousness, and muscle cramp. Adverse events occurred at about the same rates in men and women, older and younger patients, and black and non-black patients. Adverse events in Studies V and VI were similar to those described above in Studies I through IV. Irbesartan Other adverse events that have been reported with irbesartan, without regard to causality, are listed below: Body as a Whole: fever, chills, orthostatic effects, facial edema, upper extremity edema Cardiovascular: flushing, hypertension, cardiac murmur, myocardial infarction, angina pectoris, hypotension, syncope, arrhythmic/conduction disorder, cardiorespiratory arrest, heart failure, hypertensive crisis Dermatologic: pruritus, dermatitis, ecchymosis, erythema face, urticaria Endocrine/Metabolic/Electrolyte Imbalances: sexual dysfunction, libido change, gout Gastrointestinal: diarrhea, constipation, gastroenteritis, flatulence, abdominal distention Musculoskeletal/Connective Tissue: musculoskeletal trauma, extremity swelling, muscle cramp, arthritis, muscle ache, musculoskeletal chest pain, joint stiffness, bursitis, muscle weakness Nervous System: anxiety/nervousness, sleep disturbance, numbness, somnolence, vertigo, emotional disturbance, depression, paresthesia, tremor, transient ischemic attack, cerebrovascular accident Renal/Genitourinary: prostate disorder Respiratory: cough, upper respiratory infection, epistaxis, tracheobronchitis, congestion, pulmonary congestion, dyspnea, wheezing Special Senses: vision disturbance, hearing abnormality, ear infection, ear pain, conjunctivitis Hydrochlorothiazide Other adverse events that have been reported with hydrochlorothiazide, without regard to causality, are listed below: Body as a Whole: weakness Digestive: pancreatitis, jaundice (intrahepatic cholestatic jaundice), sialadenitis, cramping, gastric irritation Hematologic: aplastic anemia, agranulocytosis, leukopenia, hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia Hypersensitivity: purpura, photosensitivity, urticaria, necrotizing angiitis (vasculitis and cutaneous vasculitis), fever, respiratory distress including pneumonitis and pulmonary edema, anaphylactic reactions Metabolic: hyperglycemia, glycosuria, hyperuricemia Musculoskeletal: muscle spasm Nervous System/Psychiatric: restlessness Renal: renal failure, renal dysfunction, interstitial nephritis Skin: erythema multiforme including Stevens-Johnson syndrome, exfoliative dermatitis including toxic epidermal necrolysis Special Senses: transient blurred vision, xanthopsia Initial Therapy In the moderate hypertension Study V (mean SeDBP between 90 and 110 mmHg), the types and incidences of adverse events reported for patients treated with AVALIDE were similar to the adverse event profile in patients on initial irbesartan or HCTZ monotherapy. There were no reported events of syncope in the AVALIDE treatment group and there was one reported event in the HCTZ treatment group. The incidences of pre-specified adverse events on AVALIDE, irbesartan, and HCTZ, respectively, were: 0.9%, 0%, and 0% for hypotension; 3.0%, 3.8%, and 1.0% for dizziness; 5.5%, 3.8%, and 4.8% for headache; 1.2%, 0%, and 1.0% for hyperkalemia; and 0.9%, 0%, and 0% for hypokalemia. The rates of discontinuation due to adverse events on AVALIDE, irbesartan alone, and HCTZ alone were 6.7%, 3.8%, and 4.8%. In the severe hypertension (SeDBP ≥ 110 mmHg) Study VI, the overall pattern of adverse events reported through 7 weeks of follow-up was similar in patients treated with AVALIDE as initial therapy and in patients treated with irbesartan as initial therapy. The incidences of the pre-specified adverse events on AVALIDE and irbesartan, respectively, were: 0% and 0% for syncope; 0.6% and 0% for hypotension; 3.6% and 4.0% for dizziness; 4.3% and 6.6% for headache; 0.2% and 0% for hyperkalemia; and 0.6% and 0.4% for hypokalemia. The rates of discontinuation due to adverse events were 2.1% and 2.2%. [See Clinical Studies] Post-Marketing Experience The following adverse reactions have been identified during post-approval use of AVALIDE. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure. Decisions to include these reactions in labeling are typically based on one or more of the following factors: (1) seriousness of the reaction, (2) frequency of reporting, or (3) strength of causal connection to AVALIDE. The following have been very rarely reported: urticaria, angioedema (involving swelling of the face, lips, pharynx, and/or tongue), and hepatitis. Hyperkalemia has been rarely reported. Very rare cases of jaundice have been reported with irbesartan. Impaired renal function, including cases of renal failure in patients at risk, has been reported with irbesartan and AVALIDE. Cases of increased CPK and rhabdomyolysis have been reported in patients receiving angiotensin II receptor blockers. Laboratory Abnormalities In controlled clinical trials, clinically important changes in standard laboratory parameters were rarely associated with administration of AVALIDE. Creatinine, Blood Urea Nitrogen: Minor increases in blood urea nitrogen (BUN) or serum creatinine were observed in 2.3% and 1.1%, respectively, of patients with essential hypertension treated with AVALIDE alone. No patient discontinued taking AVALIDE due to increased BUN. One patient discontinued taking AVALIDE due to a minor increase in serum creatinine. Liver Function Tests: Occasional elevations of liver enzymes and/or serum bilirubin have occurred. In patients with essential hypertension treated with AVALIDE alone, one patient was discontinued due to elevated liver enzymes. Serum Electrolytes: [See WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS] Read the Avalide (irbesartan-hydrochlorothiazide) Side Effects Center for a complete guide to possible side effectsLearn More »

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General Considerations The side effects of irbesartan are generally rare and apparently independent of dose; those of hydrochlorothiazide are a mixture of dose-dependent (primarily hypokalemia) and dose-independent phenomena (e.g., pancreatitis), the former much more common than the latter. [See ADVERSE REACTIONS] Maximum antihypertensive effects are attained within 2 to 4 weeks after a change in dose. AVALIDE may be administered with or without food. AVALIDE may be administered with other antihypertensive agents. Renal impairment The usual regimens of therapy with AVALIDE may be followed as long as the patient's creatinine clearance is > 30 mL/min. In patients with more severe renal impairment, loop diuretics are preferred to thiazides, so AVALIDE is not recommended. Hepatic impairment No dosage adjustment is necessary in patients with hepatic impairment. Add-On Therapy In patients not controlled on monotherapy with irbesartan or hydrochlorothiazide, the recommended doses of AVALIDE, in order of increasing mean effect, are (irbesartanhydrochlorothiazide) 150/12.5 mg, 300/12.5 mg, and 300/25 mg. The largest incremental effect will likely be in the transition from monotherapy to 150/12.5 mg. [See Clinical Studies] Replacement Therapy AVALIDE may be substituted for the titrated components. Initial Therapy The usual starting dose is AVALIDE 150/12.5 mg once daily. The dosage can be increased after 1 to 2 weeks of therapy to a maximum of 300/25 mg once daily as needed to control blood pressure [see Clinical Studies]. AVALIDE is not recommended as initial therapy in patients with intravascular volume depletion [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].

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Irbesartan No significant drug-drug interactions have been found in interaction studies with hydrochlorothiazide, digoxin, warfarin, and nifedipine. [See CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY] Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents Including Selective Cyclooxygenase-2 Inhibitors (COX¬≠2 Inhibitors) In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function, coadministration of NSAIDs, including selective COX-2 inhibitors, with angiotensin II receptor antagonists, including irbesartan, may result in deterioration of renal function, including possible acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible. Monitor renal function periodically in patients receiving irbesartan and NSAID therapy. The antihypertensive effect of angiotensin II receptor antagonists, including irbesartan, may be attenuated by NSAIDs including selective COX-2 inhibitors. Dual Blockade of the Renin-Angiotensin System (RAS) Dual blockade of the RAS with angiotensin-receptor blockers, ACE inhibitors, or aliskiren is associated with increased risks of hypotension, hyperkalemia, and changes in renal function (including acute renal failure) compared to monotherapy. Closely monitor blood pressure, renal function, and electrolytes in patients on AVALIDE and other agents that affect the RAS. Do not coadminister aliskiren with AVALIDE in patients with diabetes. Avoid use of aliskiren with AVALIDE in patients with renal impairment (GFR < 60 mL/min). Hydrochlorothiazide When administered concurrently the following drugs may interact with thiazide diuretics: Alcohol, Barbiturates, or Narcotics: potentiation of orthostatic hypotension may occur. Antidiabetic Drugs (oral agents and insulin): dosage adjustment of the antidiabetic drug may be required. Other Antihypertensive Drugs: additive effect or potentiation. Cholestyramine and Colestipol Resins: absorption of hydrochlorothiazide is impaired in the presence of anionic exchange resins. Single doses of either cholestyramine or colestipol resins bind the hydrochlorothiazide and reduce its absorption from the gastrointestinal tract by up to 85% and 43%, respectively. AVALIDE should be taken at least one hour before or four hours after these medications. Corticosteroids, ACTH: intensified electrolyte depletion, particularly hypokalemia. Pressor Amines (e.g., Norepinephrine): possible decreased response to pressor amines but not sufficient to preclude their use. Skeletal Muscle Relaxants, Nondepolarizing (e.g., Tubocurarine): possible increased responsiveness to the muscle relaxant. Lithium: should not generally be given with diuretics. Diuretic agents reduce the renal clearance of lithium and add a high risk of lithium toxicity. Refer to the package insert for lithium preparations before use of such preparations with AVALIDE. [See WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS] Non-steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs: in some patients, the administration of a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent can reduce the diuretic, natriuretic, and antihypertensive effects of loop, potassium-sparing, and thiazide diuretics. Therefore, when AVALIDE (irbesartanhydrochlorothiazide) Tablets and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents are used concomitantly, the patient should be observed closely to determine if the desired effect of the diuretic is obtained. Carbamazepine: concomitant use of carbamazepine and hydrochlorothiazide has been associated with the risk of symptomatic hyponatremia. Electrolytes should be monitored during concomitant use. Read the Avalide Drug Interactions Center for a complete guide to possible interactions Learn More »

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AVALIDE® (irbesartan-hydrochlorothiazide) Tablets are indicated for the treatment of hypertension. AVALIDE may be used in patients whose blood pressure is not adequately controlled on monotherapy. AVALIDE may also be used as initial therapy in patients who are likely to need multiple drugs to achieve their blood pressure goals. The choice of AVALIDE as initial therapy for hypertension should be based on an assessment of potential benefits and risks. Patients with stage 2 (moderate or severe) hypertension are at relatively high risk for cardiovascular events (such as strokes, heart attacks, and heart failure), kidney failure, and vision problems, so prompt treatment is clinically relevant. The decision to use a combination as initial therapy should be individualized and may be shaped by considerations such as the baseline blood pressure, the target goal, and the incremental likelihood of achieving goal with a combination compared with monotherapy. Data from Studies V and VI [see Clinical Studies] provide estimates of the probability of reaching a blood pressure goal with AVALIDE compared to irbesartan or HCTZ monotherapy. The relationship between baseline blood pressure and achievement of a SeSBP < 140 or < 130 mmHg or SeDBP < 90 or < 80 mmHg in patients treated with AVALIDE compared to patients treated with irbesartan or HCTZ monotherapy are shown in Figures 1a through 2b. Figure 1a: Probability of Achieving SBP < 140 mmHg in Patients from Initial Therapy Studies V (Week 8) and VI (Week 7)*
Figure 1b: Probability of Achieving SBP < 130 mmHg in Patients from Initial Therapy Studies V (Week 8) and VI (Week 7)*
Figure 2a: Probability of Achieving DBP < 90 mmHg in Patients from Initial Therapy Studies V (Week 8) and VI (Week 7)*
Figure 2b: Probability of Achieving DBP < 80 mmHg in Patients from Initial Therapy Studies V (Week 8) and VI (Week 7)* *For all probability curves, patients without blood pressure measurements at Week 7 (Study VI) and Week 8 (Study V) were counted as not reaching goal (intent-to-treat analysis). The above graphs provide a rough approximation of the likelihood of reaching a targeted blood pressure goal (e.g., Week 8 sitting systolic blood pressure ≤ 140 mmHg) for the treatment groups. The curve of each treatment group in each study was estimated by logistic regression modeling from all available data of that treatment group. The estimated likelihood at the right tail of each curve is less reliable due to small numbers of subjects with high baseline blood pressures. For example, a patient with a blood pressure of 180/105 mmHg has about a 25% likelihood of achieving a goal of < 140 mmHg (systolic) and 50% likelihood of achieving < 90 mmHg (diastolic) on irbesartan alone (and lower still likelihoods on HCTZ alone). The likelihood of achieving these goals on AVALIDE rises to about 40% (systolic) or 70% (diastolic).

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  • AVALIDE is contraindicated in patients who are hypersensitive to any component of this product.
  • Because of the hydrochlorothiazide component, this product is contraindicated in patients with anuria or hypersensitivity to other sulfonamide-derived drugs.
  • Do not co-administer aliskiren with Avalide in patients with diabetes [see DRUG INTERACTIONS].
Last reviewed on RxList: 11/8/2012
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

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Irbesartan No data are available in regard to overdosage in humans. However, daily doses of 900 mg for 8 weeks were well tolerated. The most likely manifestations of overdosage are expected to be hypotension and tachycardia; bradycardia might also occur from overdose. Irbesartan is not removed by hemodialysis. To obtain up-to-date information about the treatment of overdosage, a good resource is a certified regional Poison Control Center. Telephone numbers of certified Poison Control Centers are listed in the Physicians' Desk Reference (PDR). In managing overdose, consider the possibilities of multiple-drug interactions, drug-drug interactions, and unusual drug kinetics in the patient. Laboratory determinations of serum levels of irbesartan are not widely available, and such determinations have, in any event, no established role in the management of irbesartan overdose. Acute oral toxicity studies with irbesartan in mice and rats indicated acute lethal doses were in excess of 2000 mg/kg, about 25- and 50-fold the MRHD (300 mg) on a mg/m²basis, respectively. Hydrochlorothiazide The most common signs and symptoms of overdose observed in humans are those caused by electrolyte depletion (hypokalemia, hypochloremia, hyponatremia) and dehydration resulting from excessive diuresis. If digitalis has also been administered, hypokalemia may accentuate cardiac arrhythmias. The degree to which hydrochlorothiazide is removed by hemodialysis has not been established. The oral LD50 of hydrochlorothiazide is greater than 10 g/kg in both mice and rats.

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Dosage Forms And Strengths AVALIDE® (irbesartan-hydrochlorothiazide) 150/12.5 mg and 300/12.5 mg film-coated tablets are peach, biconvex, and oval with a heart debossed on one side and “2875” or “2876” on the reverse side, respectively. Storage And Handling AVALIDE® (irbesartan-hydrochlorothiazide) film-coated tablets have markings on both sides and are available in the strengths and packages listed in the following table: Tablet Strength (irbesartan and hydrochlorothiazide) Film-Coated Tablet Color/Shape Tablet Markings Package Size NDC Code 150 mg/12.5 mg peach, biconvex, oval-shaped heart debossed on one side and “2875“ on the reverse Bottles of 30 Bottles of 90 0087-2875-31 0087-2875-32 300 mg/12.5 mg peach, biconvex, oval-shaped heart debossed on one side and “2876“ on the reverse Bottles of 30 Bottles of 90 0087-2876-31 0087-2876-32 Storage Store at 25°C (77°F); excursions permitted to 15°C-30°C (59°F-86°F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature]. Manufactured by: sanofi-aventis U.S. LLC Bridgewater, NJ 08807. A Sanofi Company. Distributed by: Bristol-Myers Squibb Sanofi-Synthelabo Partnership., New York, New York 10016, Origin France. Rev 10/2012 Last reviewed on RxList: 11/8/2012
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

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Fetal Toxicity Pregnancy Category D Use of drugs that act on the renin-angiotensin system during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy reduces fetal renal function and increases fetal and neonatal morbidity and death. Resulting oligohydramnios can be associated with fetal lung hypoplasia and skeletal deformations. Potential neonatal adverse effects include skull hypoplasia, anuria, hypotension, renal failure, and death. When pregnancy is detected, discontinue AVALIDE as soon as possible [see Use In Specific Populations]. Thiazides cross the placenta, and use of thiazides during pregnancy is associated with a risk of fetal or neonatal jaundice, thrombocytopenia, and possibly other adverse reactions that have occurred in adults. Hypotension in Volume- or Salt-Depleted Patients Excessive reduction of blood pressure was rarely seen in patients with uncomplicated hypertension treated with irbesartan alone ( < 0.1%) or with irbesartan-hydrochlorothiazide (approximately 1%). Initiation of antihypertensive therapy may cause symptomatic hypotension in patients with intravascular volume- or sodium-depletion, e.g., in patients treated vigorously with diuretics or in patients on dialysis. Such volume depletion should be corrected prior to administration of antihypertensive therapy. If hypotension occurs, the patient should be placed in the supine position and, if necessary, given an intravenous infusion of normal saline. A transient hypotensive response is not a contraindication to further treatment, which usually can be continued without difficulty once the blood pressure has stabilized. Hypersensitivity Reaction Hydrochlorothiazide Hypersensitivity reactions to hydrochlorothiazide may occur in patients with or without a history of allergy or bronchial asthma, but are more likely in patients with such a history. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Hydrochlorothiazide Thiazide diuretics have been reported to cause exacerbation or activation of systemic lupus erythematosus. Lithium Interaction Hydrochlorothiazide Lithium generally should not be given with thiazides. [See DRUG INTERACTIONS] Electrolyte and Metabolic Imbalances Irbesartan-Hydrochlorothiazide In double-blind clinical trials of various doses of irbesartan and hydrochlorothiazide, the incidence of hypertensive patients who developed hypokalemia (serum potassium < 3.5 mEq/L) was 7.5% versus 6.0% for placebo; the incidence of hyperkalemia (serum potassium > 5.7 mEq/L) was < 1.0% versus 1.7% for placebo. No patient discontinued due to increases or decreases in serum potassium. On average, the combination of irbesartan and hydrochlorothiazide had no effect on serum potassium. Higher doses of irbesartan ameliorated the hypokalemic response to hydrochlorothiazide. Based on experience with the use of other drugs that affect the renin-angiotensin system, concomitant use of potassium-sparing diuretics, potassium supplements, or salt substitutes containing potassium may lead to increases in serum potassium. Concurrent therapy with hydrochlorothiazide may reduce the frequency of this effect. Hydrochlorothiazide Hydrochlorothiazide can cause hypokalemia and hyponatremia. Hypomagnesemia can result in hypokalemia which appears difficult to treat despite potassium repletion. Drugs that inhibit the renin-angiotensin system can cause hyperkalemia. Monitor serum electrolytes periodically. Hyperuricemia may occur or frank gout may be precipitated in certain patients receiving thiazide therapy. Hydrochlorothiazide may alter glucose tolerance and raise serum levels of cholesterol and triglycerides. The antihypertensive effects of the drug may be enhanced in the post-sympathectomy patient. Thiazides may decrease urinary calcium excretion. Thiazides may cause intermittent and slight elevation of serum calcium in the absence of known disorders of calcium metabolism. Marked hypercalcemia may be evidence of hidden hyperparathyroidism. Thiazides should be discontinued before carrying out tests for parathyroid function. Hepatic Impairment Hydrochlorothiazide Thiazides should be used with caution in patients with impaired hepatic function or progressive liver disease, since minor alterations of fluid and electrolyte balance may precipitate hepatic coma. Impaired Renal Function As a consequence of inhibiting the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, changes in renal function may be anticipated in susceptible individuals [see DRUG INTERACTIONS]. In patients whose renal function may depend on the activity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (e.g., patients with severe congestive heart failure), treatment with ACE inhibitors has been associated with oliguria and/or progressive azotemia and (rarely) with acute renal failure and/or death. Irbesartan would be expected to behave similarly. In studies of ACE inhibitors in patients with unilateral or bilateral renal artery stenosis, increases in serum creatinine or BUN have been reported. There has been no known use of irbesartan in patients with unilateral or bilateral renal artery stenosis, but a similar effect should be anticipated. Thiazides should be used with caution in severe renal disease. In patients with renal disease, thiazides may precipitate azotemia. Cumulative effects of the drug may develop in patients with impaired renal function. Acute Myopia and Secondary Angle-Closure Glaucoma Sulfonamide or sulfonamide derivative drugs, such as hydrochlorothiazide, can cause an idiosyncratic reaction, resulting in transient myopia and acute angle-closure glaucoma. Cases of acute angle-closure glaucoma have been reported with hydrochlorothiazide. Symptoms include acute onset of decreased visual acuity or ocular pain and typically occur within hours to weeks of drug initiation. Untreated acute angle-closure glaucoma can lead to permanent vision loss. The primary treatment is to discontinue drug intake as rapidly as possible. Prompt medical or surgical treatments may need to be considered if the intraocular pressure remains uncontrolled. Risk factors for developing acute angle-closure glaucoma may include a history of sulfonamide or penicillin allergy. Nonclinical Toxicology Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility Irbesartan-Hydrochlorothiazide No carcinogenicity studies have been conducted with the irbesartan-hydrochlorothiazide combination. Irbesartan-hydrochlorothiazide was not mutagenic in standard in vitro tests (Ames microbial test and Chinese hamster mammalian-cell forward gene-mutation assay). Irbesartanhydrochlorothiazide was negative in tests for induction of chromosomal aberrations (in vitro — human lymphocyte assay; in vivo—mouse micronucleus study). The combination of irbesartan and hydrochlorothiazide has not been evaluated in definitive studies of fertility. Irbesartan No evidence of carcinogenicity was observed when irbesartan was administered at doses of up to 500/1000 mg/kg/day (males/females, respectively) in rats and 1000 mg/kg/day in mice for up to 2 years. For male and female rats, 500 mg/kg/day provided an average systemic exposure to irbesartan (AUC0-24 hours, bound plus unbound) about 3 and 11 times, respectively, the average systemic exposure in humans receiving the maximum recommended dose (MRD) of 300 mg irbesartan/day, whereas 1000 mg/kg/day (administered to females only) provided an average systemic exposure about 21 times that reported for humans at the MRD. For male and female mice, 1000 mg/kg/day provided an exposure to irbesartan about 3 and 5 times, respectively, the human exposure at 300 mg/day. Irbesartan was not mutagenic in a battery of in vitro tests (Ames microbial test, rat hepatocyte DNA repair test, V79 mammalian-cell forward gene-mutation assay). Irbesartan was negative in several tests for induction of chromosomal aberrations (in vitro —human lymphocyte assay; in vivo—mouse micronucleus study). Irbesartan had no adverse effects on fertility or mating of male or female rats at oral doses ≤ 650 mg/kg/day, the highest dose providing a systemic exposure to irbesartan (AUC0-24 hours, bound plus unbound) about 5 times that found in humans receiving the MRD of 300 mg/day. Hydrochlorothiazide Two-year feeding studies in mice and rats conducted under the auspices of the National Toxicology Program (NTP) uncovered no evidence of a carcinogenic potential of hydrochlorothiazide in female mice (at doses of up to approximately 600 mg/kg/day) or in male and female rats (at doses of up to approximately 100 mg/kg/day). The NTP, however, found equivocal evidence for hepatocarcinogenicity in male mice. Hydrochlorothiazide was not genotoxic in vitro in the Ames mutagenicity assay of Salmonella typhimurium strains TA 98, TA 100, TA 1535, TA 1537, and TA 1538 and in the Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) test for chromosomal aberrations, or in vivo in assays using mouse germinal cell chromosomes, Chinese hamster bone marrow chromosomes, and the Drosophila sex-linked recessive lethal trait gene. Positive test results were obtained only in the in vitro CHO Sister Chromatid Exchange (clastogenicity) and in the Mouse Lymphoma Cell (mutagenicity) assays, using concentrations of hydrochlorothiazide from 43 to 1300 μg/mL, and in the Aspergillus nidulans non-disjunction assay at an unspecified concentration. Hydrochlorothiazide had no adverse effects on the fertility of mice and rats of either sex in studies wherein these species were exposed, via their diet, to doses of up to 100 and 4 mg/kg, respectively, prior to mating and throughout gestation. Use In Specific Populations Pregnancy Pregnancy Category D Use of drugs that act on the renin-angiotensin system during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy reduces fetal renal function and increases fetal and neonatal morbidity and death. Resulting oligohydramnios can be associated with fetal lung hypoplasia and skeletal deformations. Potential neonatal adverse effects include skull hypoplasia, anuria, hypotension, renal failure, and death. When pregnancy is detected, discontinue AVALIDE as soon as possible. These adverse outcomes are usually associated with use of these drugs in the second and third trimester of pregnancy. Most epidemiologic studies examining fetal abnormalities after exposure to antihypertensive use in the first trimester have not distinguished drugs affecting the reninangiotensin system from other antihypertensive agents. Appropriate management of maternal hypertension during pregnancy is important to optimize outcomes for both mother and fetus. In the unusual case that there is no appropriate alternative to therapy with drugs affecting the renin-angiotensin system for a particular patient, apprise the mother of the potential risk to the fetus. Perform serial ultrasound examinations to assess the intra-amniotic environment. If oligohydramnios is observed, discontinue AVALIDE, unless it is considered lifesaving for the mother. Fetal testing may be appropriate, based on the week of pregnancy. Patients and physicians should be aware, however, that oligohydramnios may not appear until after the fetus has sustained irreversible injury. Closely observe infants with histories of in utero exposure to AVALIDE for hypotension, oliguria, and hyperkalemia [see Use In Specific Populations]. Irbesartan crosses the placenta in rats and rabbits. In pregnant rats given irbesartan at doses greater than the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD), fetuses showed increased incidences of renal pelvic cavitation, hydroureter and/or absence of renal papilla. Subcutaneous edema also occurred in fetuses at doses about 4 times the MRHD (based on body surface area). These anomalies occurred when pregnant rats received irbesartan through Day 20 of gestation but not when drug was stopped on gestation Day 15. The observed effects are believed to be late gestational effects of the drug. Pregnant rabbits given oral doses of irbesartan equivalent to 1.5 times the MRHD experienced a high rate of maternal mortality and abortion. Surviving females had a slight increase in early resorptions and a corresponding decrease in live fetuses [see Nonclinical Toxicology]. Radioactivity was present in the rat and rabbit fetus during late gestation and in rat milk following oral doses of radiolabeled irbesartan. When pregnant mice and rats were given hydrochlorothiazide at doses up to 3000 and 1000 mg/kg/day, respectively (about 600 and 400 times the MRHD) during their respective periods of major organogenesis, there was no evidence of fetal harm. A development toxicity study was performed in rats with doses of 50/50 mg/kg/day and 150/150 mg/kg/day irbesartan-hydrochlorothiazide. Although the high dose combination appeared to be more toxic to the dams than either drug alone, there did not appear to be an increase in toxicity to the developing embryos. Nursing Mothers It is not known whether irbesartan is excreted in human milk, but irbesartan or some metabolite of irbesartan is secreted at low concentration in the milk of lactating rats. Thiazides appear in human milk. Because of the potential for adverse effects on the nursing infant, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother. Pediatric Use Neonates with a history of in utero exposure to AVALIDE If oliguria or hypotension occurs, direct attention toward support of blood pressure and renal perfusion. Exchange transfusions or dialysis may be required as a means of reversing hypotension and/or substituting for disordered renal function. Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established. Geriatric Use Of 1694 patients receiving AVALIDE in controlled clinical studies of hypertension, 264 (15.6%) were 65 years and over, while 45 (2.7%) were 75 years and over. No overall differences in safety or effectiveness were observed between these patients and younger patients, but greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be ruled out. [See CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY and Clinical Studies] Last reviewed on RxList: 11/8/2012
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

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