Drug: Avapro

AVAPRO® (irbesartan) is an angiotensin II receptor (AT1 subtype) antagonist. Irbesartan is a non-peptide compound, chemically described as a 2-butyl-3-[p-(o-1Htetrazol-5-ylphenyl)benzyl]-1,3-diazaspiro[4.4]non-1-en-4-one. Its empirical formula is C25H28N6O, and the structural formula: Irbesartan is a white to off-white crystalline powder with a molecular weight of 428.5. It is a nonpolar compound with a partition coefficient (octanol/water) of 10.1 at pH of 7.4. Irbesartan is slightly soluble in alcohol and methylene chloride and practically insoluble in water. AVAPRO is available for oral administration in unscored tablets containing 75 mg, 150 mg, or 300 mg of irbesartan. Inactive ingredients include: lactose monohydrate, microcrystalline cellulose, croscarmellose sodium, hypromellose, silicon dioxide, magnesium stearate, titanium dioxide, and polyethylene glycol 3000.

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Hypertension AVAPRO has been evaluated for safety in more than 4300 patients with hypertension and about 5000 subjects overall. This experience includes 1303 patients treated for over 6 months and 407 patients for 1 year or more. Treatment with AVAPRO was well-tolerated, with an incidence of adverse events similar to placebo. These events generally were mild and transient with no relationship to the dose of AVAPRO. In placebo-controlled clinical trials, discontinuation of therapy due to a clinical adverse event was required in 3.3% of patients treated with AVAPRO, versus 4.5% of patients given placebo. In placebo-controlled clinical trials, the following adverse event experiences reported in at least 1% of patients treated with AVAPRO (n=1965) and at a higher incidence versus placebo (n=641), excluding those too general to be informative and those not reasonably associated with the use of drug because they were associated with the condition being treated or are very common in the treated population, include: diarrhea (3% vs 2%), dyspepsia/heartburn (2% vs 1%), and fatigue (4% vs 3%). The following adverse events occurred at an incidence of 1% or greater in patients treated with irbesartan, but were at least as frequent or more frequent in patients receiving placebo: abdominal pain, anxiety/nervousness, chest pain, dizziness, edema, headache, influenza, musculoskeletal pain, pharyngitis, nausea/vomiting, rash, rhinitis, sinus abnormality, tachycardia, and urinary tract infection. Irbesartan use was not associated with an increased incidence of dry cough, as is typically associated with ACE inhibitor use. In placebo-controlled studies, the incidence of cough in irbesartan-treated patients was 2.8% versus 2.7% in patients receiving placebo. The incidence of hypotension or orthostatic hypotension was low in irbesartantreated patients (0.4%), unrelated to dosage, and similar to the incidence among placebo-treated patients (0.2%). Dizziness, syncope, and vertigo were reported with equal or less frequency in patients receiving irbesartan compared with placebo. In addition, the following potentially important events occurred in less than 1% of the 1965 patients and at least 5 patients (0.3%) receiving irbesartan in clinical studies, and those less frequent, clinically significant events (listed by body system). It cannot be determined whether these events were causally related to irbesartan: Body as a Whole: fever, chills, facial edema, upper extremity edema Cardiovascular: flushing, hypertension, cardiac murmur, myocardial infarction, angina pectoris, arrhythmic/conduction disorder, cardio-respiratory arrest, heart failure, hypertensive crisis Dermatologic: pruritus, dermatitis, ecchymosis, erythema face, urticaria Endocrine/Metabolic/Electrolyte Imbalances: sexual dysfunction, libido change, gout Gastrointestinal: constipation, oral lesion, gastroenteritis, flatulence, abdominal distention Musculoskeletal/Connective Tissue: extremity swelling, muscle cramp, arthritis, muscle ache, musculoskeletal chest pain, joint stiffness, bursitis, muscle weakness Nervous System: sleep disturbance, numbness, somnolence, emotional disturbance, depression, paresthesia, tremor, transient ischemic attack, cerebrovascular accident Renal/Genitourinary: abnormal urination, prostate disorder Respiratory: epistaxis, tracheobronchitis, congestion, pulmonary congestion, dyspnea, wheezing Special Senses: vision disturbance, hearing abnormality, ear infection, ear pain, conjunctivitis, other eye disturbance, eyelid abnormality, ear abnormality Nephropathy In Type 2 Diabetic Patients In clinical studies in patients with hypertension and type 2 diabetic renal disease, the adverse drug experiences were similar to those seen in patients with hypertension with the exception of an increased incidence of orthostatic symptoms (dizziness, orthostatic dizziness, and orthostatic hypotension) observed in IDNT (proteinuria ≥ 900 mg/day, and serum creatinine ranging from 1.0-3.0 mg/dL). In this trial, orthostatic symptoms occurred more frequently in the AVAPRO group (dizziness 10.2%, orthostatic dizziness 5.4%, orthostatic hypotension 5.4%) than in the placebo group (dizziness 6.0%, orthostatic dizziness 2.7%, orthostatic hypotension 3.2%). Post-Marketing Experience The following adverse reactions have been identified during post-approval use of AVAPRO. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to estimate reliably their frequency or to establish a causal relationship to drug exposure. Decisions to include these reactions in labeling are typically based on one or more of the following factors: (1) seriousness of the reaction, (2) frequency of reporting, or (3) strength of causal connection to AVAPRO. The following have been reported: urticaria; angioedema (involving swelling of the face, lips, pharynx, and/or tongue); increased liver function tests; jaundice; hepatitis; hyperkalemia, and thrombocytopenia. Impaired renal function, including cases of renal failure, has been reported. Cases of increased CPK and rhabdomyolysis have been reported in patients receiving angiotensin II receptor blockers. Laboratory Test Findings Hypertension In controlled clinical trials, clinically important differences in laboratory tests were rarely associated with administration of AVAPRO. Creatinine, Blood Urea Nitrogen Minor increases in blood urea nitrogen (BUN) or serum creatinine were observed in less than 0.7% of patients with essential hypertension treated with AVAPRO alone versus 0.9% on placebo. (See PRECAUTIONS: Impaired Renal Function.) Hematologic Mean decreases in hemoglobin of 0.2 g/dL were observed in 0.2% of patients receiving AVAPRO compared to 0.3% of placebo-treated patients. Neutropenia ( < 1000 cells/mm³ ) occurred at similar frequencies among patients receiving AVAPRO (0.3%) and placebo-treated patients (0.5%). Nephropathy In Type 2 Diabetic Patients Hyperkalemia In IDNT (proteinuria ≥ 900 mg/day, and serum creatinine ranging from 1.0-3.0 mg/dL), the percent of patients with hyperkalemia ( > 6 mEq/L) was 18.6% in the AVAPRO group versus 6.0% in the placebo group. Discontinuations due to hyperkalemia in the AVAPRO group were 2.1% versus 0.4% in the placebo group. Read the Avapro (irbesartan) Side Effects Center for a complete guide to possible side effectsLearn More »

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AVAPRO may be administered with other antihypertensive agents and with or without food. Hypertension The recommended initial dose of AVAPRO (irbesartan) is 150 mg once daily. Patients requiring further reduction in blood pressure should be titrated to 300 mg once daily. A low dose of a diuretic may be added, if blood pressure is not controlled by AVAPRO alone. Hydrochlorothiazide has been shown to have an additive effect (see: Clinical Studies). Patients not adequately treated by the maximum dose of 300 mg once daily are unlikely to derive additional benefit from a higher dose or twice-daily dosing. No dosage adjustment is necessary in elderly patients, or in patients with hepatic impairment or mild to severe renal impairment. Nephropathy In Type 2 Diabetic Patients The recommended target maintenance dose is 300 mg once daily. There are no data on the clinical effects of lower doses of AVAPRO on diabetic nephropathy (see : Clinical Studies). Volume-And Salt-Depleted Patients A lower initial dose of AVAPRO (75 mg) is recommended in patients with depletion of intravascular volume or salt (eg, patients treated vigorously with diuretics or on hemodialysis) (see WARNINGS: Hypotension in Volume-or Salt-Depleted Patients).

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Lithium: Increases in serum lithium concentrations and lithium toxicity have been reported with concomitant use of irbesartan or thiazide diuretics. Monitor lithium levels in patients receiving Avapro and lithium. In vitro studies show significant inhibition of the formation of oxidized irbesartan metabolites with the known cytochrome CYP 2C9 substrates/inhibitors sulphenazole, tolbutamide and nifedipine. However, in clinical studies the consequences of concomitant irbesartan on the pharmacodynamics of warfarin were negligible. Based on in vitro data, no interaction would be expected with drugs whose metabolism is dependent upon cytochrome P450 isoenzymes 1A1, 1A2, 2A6, 2B6, 2D6, 2E1, or 3A4. In separate studies of patients receiving maintenance doses of warfarin, hydrochlorothiazide, or digoxin, irbesartan administration for 7 days had no effect on the pharmacodynamics of warfarin (prothrombin time) or pharmacokinetics of digoxin. The pharmacokinetics of irbesartan were not affected by coadministration of nifedipine or hydrochlorothiazide. Concomitant use of potassium-sparing diuretics, potassium supplements, or salt substitutes containing potassium may lead to increases in serum potassium. Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents Including Selective Cyclooxygenase-2 Inhibitors (COX-2 Inhibitors) In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function, coadministration of NSAIDs, including selective COX-2 inhibitors, with angiotensin II receptor antagonists, including irbesartan, may result in deterioration of renal function, including possible acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible. Monitor renal function periodically in patients receiving irbesartan and NSAID therapy. The antihypertensive effect of angiotensin II receptor antagonists, including irbesartan, may be attenuated by NSAIDs including selective COX-2 inhibitors. Dual Blockade Of The Renin-Angiotensin System (RAS) Dual blockade of the RAS with angiotensin-receptor blockers, ACE inhibitors, or aliskiren is associated with increased risks of hypotension, hyperkalemia, and changes in renal function (including acute renal failure) compared to monotherapy. Closely monitor blood pressure, renal function, and electrolytes in patients on AVAPRO and other agents that affect the RAS. In most patients no benefit has been associated with using two RAS inhibitors concomitantly. In general, avoid combined use of RAS inhibitors. Do not coadminister aliskiren with AVAPRO in patients with diabetes. Avoid use of aliskiren with AVAPRO in patients with renal impairment (GFR < 60 mL/min). Read the Avapro Drug Interactions Center for a complete guide to possible interactions Learn More »

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Hypertension AVAPRO (irbesartan) is indicated for the treatment of hypertension. It may be used alone or in combination with other antihypertensive agents. Nephropathy In Type 2 Diabetic Patients AVAPRO is indicated for the treatment of diabetic nephropathy with an elevated serum creatinine and proteinuria ( > 300 mg/day) in patients with type 2 diabetes and hypertension. In this population, AVAPRO reduces the rate of progression of nephropathy as measured by the occurrence of doubling of serum creatinine or end-stage renal disease (need for dialysis or renal transplantation) (see: Clinical Studies).

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AVAPRO is contraindicated in patients who are hypersensitive to any component of this product. Do not coadminister aliskiren with AVAPRO in patients with diabetes (see PRECAUTIONS: DRUG INTERACTIONS). Last reviewed on RxList: 7/15/2014
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

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No data are available in regard to overdosage in humans. However, daily doses of 900 mg for 8 weeks were well-tolerated. The most likely manifestations of overdosage are expected to be hypotension and tachycardia; bradycardia might also occur from overdose. Irbesartan is not removed by hemodialysis. To obtain up-to-date information about the treatment of overdosage, a good resource is a certified regional Poison Control Center. Telephone numbers of certified Poison Control Centers are listed in the Physicians' Desk Reference (PDR). In managing overdose, consider the possibilities of multiple-drug interactions, drug-drug interactions, and unusual drug kinetics in the patient. Laboratory determinations of serum levels of irbesartan are not widely available, and such determinations have, in any event, no known established role in the management of irbesartan overdose. Acute oral toxicity studies with irbesartan in mice and rats indicated acute lethal doses were in excess of 2000 mg/kg, about 25-and 50-fold the MRHD (300 mg) on a mg/m² basis, respectively.

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AVAPRO® (irbesartan) is available as white to off-white biconvex oval tablets, debossed with a heart shape on one side and a code on the other (see Table below). Unit-of-use bottles contain 30 or 90 tablets as follows:   75 mg 150 mg 300 mg Debossing 2871 2872 2873 Bottle of 30 0024-5850-30 0024-5851-30 0024-5852-30 Bottle of 90 0024-5850-90 0024-5851-90 0024-5852-90 Storage Store at 25°C (77°F); excursions permitted to 15°C-30°C (59°F-86°F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature]. sanofi-aventis U.S. LLC Bridgewater, NJ 08807. A SANOFI COMPANY. Rev May 2014 Last reviewed on RxList: 7/15/2014
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

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Impaired Renal Function As a consequence of inhibiting the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, changes in renal function may be anticipated in susceptible individuals. In patients whose renal function may depend on the activity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (eg, patients with severe congestive heart failure), treatment with angiotensin-convertingenzyme inhibitors has been associated with oliguria and/or progressive azotemia and (rarely) with acute renal failure and/or death. AVAPRO would be expected to behave similarly. In studies of ACE inhibitors in patients with unilateral or bilateral renal artery stenosis, increases in serum creatinine or BUN have been reported. There has been no known use of AVAPRO in patients with unilateral or bilateral renal artery stenosis, but a similar effect should be anticipated. Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment Of Fertility No evidence of carcinogenicity was observed when irbesartan was administered at doses of up to 500/1000 mg/kg/day (males/females, respectively) in rats and 1000 mg/kg/day in mice for up to 2 years. For male and female rats, 500 mg/kg/day provided an average systemic exposure to irbesartan (AUC0-24 hour, bound plus unbound) about 3 and 11 times, respectively, the average systemic exposure in humans receiving the maximum recommended dose (MRD) of 300 mg irbesartan/day, whereas 1000 mg/kg/day (administered to females only) provided an average systemic exposure about 21 times that reported for humans at the MRD. For male and female mice, 1000 mg/kg/day provided an exposure to irbesartan about 3 and 5 times, respectively, the human exposure at 300 mg/day. Irbesartan was not mutagenic in a battery of in vitro tests (Ames microbial test, rat hepatocyte DNA repair test, V79 mammalian-cell forward gene-mutation assay). Irbesartan was negative in several tests for induction of chromosomal aberrations (in vitro-human lymphocyte assay; in vivo-mouse micronucleus study). Irbesartan had no adverse effects on fertility or mating of male or female rats at oral doses &e;650 mg/kg/day, the highest dose providing a systemic exposure to irbesartan (AUC0-24 hour, bound plus unbound) about 5 times that found in humans receiving the maximum recommended dose of 300 mg/day. Pregnancy Pregnancy Category D See WARNINGS: Fetal Toxicity. Nursing Mothers It is not known whether irbesartan is excreted in human milk, but irbesartan or some metabolite of irbesartan is secreted at low concentration in the milk of lactating rats. Because of the potential for adverse effects on the nursing infant, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother. Pediatric Use Neonates with a history of in utero exposure to AVAPRO: If oliguria or hypotension occurs, direct attention toward support of blood pressure and renal perfusion. Exchange transfusions or dialysis may be required as a means of reversing hypotension and/or substituting for disordered renal function. Irbesartan, in a study at a dose of up to 4.5 mg/kg/day, once daily, did not appear to lower blood pressure effectively in pediatric patients ages 6 to 16 years. AVAPRO has not been studied in pediatric patients less than 6 years old. Geriatric Use Of 4925 subjects receiving AVAPRO (irbesartan) in controlled clinical studies of hypertension, 911 (18.5%) were 65 years and over, while 150 (3.0%) were 75 years and over. No overall differences in effectiveness or safety were observed between these subjects and younger subjects, but greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be ruled out. (See CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY: Pharmacokinetics, Special Populations, and Clinical Studies.) Last reviewed on RxList: 7/15/2014
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

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