Drug: Atrovent HFA

The active ingredient in ATROVENT HFA is ipratropium bromide (as the monohydrate). It is an anticholinergic bronchodilator chemically described as 8azoniabicyclo[3.2.1]octane, 3-(3-hydroxy-1-oxo-2-phenylpropoxy)-8-methyl-8-(1-methylethyl)-,bromide monohydrate, (3-endo, 8-syn)-: a synthetic quaternary ammonium compound, chemically related to atropine. The structural formula for ipratropium bromide is:
C20H30BrNO3•H2O      ipratropium bromide      Mol. Wt. 430.4 Ipratropium bromide is a white to off-white crystalline substance, freely soluble in water and methanol, sparingly soluble in ethanol, and insoluble in lipophilic solvents such as ether, chloroform, and fluorocarbons. ATROVENT HFA is a pressurized metered-dose aerosol unit for oral inhalation that contains a solution of ipratropium bromide. The 200 inhalation unit has a net weight of 12.9 grams. After priming, each actuation of the inhaler delivers 21 mcg of ipratropium bromide from the valve in 56 mg of solution and delivers 17 mcg of ipratropium bromide from the mouthpiece. The actual amount of drug delivered to the lung may depend on patient factors, such as the coordination between the actuation of the device and inspiration through the delivery system. The excipients are HFA-134a (1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane) as propellant, sterile water, dehydrated alcohol, and anhydrous citric acid. This product does not contain chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) as propellants. ATROVENT HFA should be primed before using for the first time by releasing 2 test sprays into the air away from the face. In cases where the inhaler has not been used for more than 3 days, prime the inhaler again by releasing 2 test sprays into the air away from the face.

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The following adverse reactions are described, or described in greater detail, in other sections:
  • Hypersensitivity reactions, including anaphylaxis [see CONTRAINDICATIONS and WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
  • Paradoxical bronchospasm [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
  • Ocular effects [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
  • Urinary retention [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in patients. Clinical Trials Experience The adverse reaction information concerning ATROVENT HFA is derived from two 12-week, double-blind, parallel group studies and one 1-year open-label, parallel group study. These studies compared ATROVENT HFA Inhalation Aerosol, ATROVENT CFC Inhalation Aerosol, and placebo (in one study only) in 1010 COPD patients. The following table lists the incidence of adverse reactions that occurred at a rate of greater than or equal to 3% in any ipratropium bromide group and greater than placebo in the 12-week study. The frequency of corresponding reactions in the 1-year open label study is included for comparison. TABLE 1 : Adverse Reactions (% Patients) in ATROVENT HFA Clinical Trials
  Placebo-controlled 12 week Study 244.1405 and Active-controlled 12 week Study 244.1408 Active-controlled 1-year Study 244.2453 Atrovent HFA
(N=243)
% Atrovent CFC
(N=183)
% Placebo
(N=128)
% Atrovent HFA
(N=305)
% Atrovent CFC
(N=151)
% BODY AS A WHOLE - GENERAL DISORDERS   Back pain 2 3 2 7 3   Headache 6 9 8 7 5   Influenza-like symptoms 4 2 2 8 5 CENTRAL & PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISORDERS   Dizziness 3 3 2 3 1 GASTROINTESTINAL SYSTEM DISORDERS   Dyspepsia 1 3 1 5 3   Mouth dry 4 2 2 2 3   Nausea 4 1 2 4 4 RESPIRATORY SYSTEM DISORDERS   Bronchitis 10 11 6 23 19   COPD exacerbation 8 14 13 23 23   Dyspnea 8 8 4 7 4   Sinusitis 1 4 3 11 14 URINARY SYSTEM DISORDERS   Urinary tract infection 2 3 1 10 8 Cough, rhinitis, and upper respiratory infection occurred in greater than or equal to 3% of patients in either ipratropium treatment group but not greater than placebo in the 12-week study. In the one open label controlled study in 456 COPD patients, the overall incidence of adverse events was also similar between ATROVENT HFA and ATROVENT CFC formulations. Overall, in the above mentioned studies, 9.3% of the patients taking 42 mcg ATROVENT HFA and 8.7% of the patients taking 42 mcg ATROVENT CFC reported at least one adverse event that was considered by the investigator to be related to the study drug. The most common drug-related adverse events were dry mouth (1.6% of ATROVENT HFA and 0.9% of ATROVENT CFC patients), and taste perversion (bitter taste) (0.9% of ATROVENT HFA and 0.3% of ATROVENT CFC patients). As an anticholinergic drug, cases of precipitation or worsening of narrow-angle glaucoma, glaucoma, halo vision, conjunctival hyperaemia, corneal edema, mydriasis, acute eye pain, dry throat, hypotension, palpitations, urinary retention, tachycardia, constipation, bronchospasm, including paradoxical bronchospasm have been reported with the use of ATROVENT. Additional adverse reactions identified for ATROVENT seen in clinical trials include throat irritation, stomatitis, mouth edema, and vision blurred. Allergic-type reactions such as skin rash, pruritus, angioedema including that of tongue, lips and face, urticaria (including giant urticaria), laryngospasm and anaphylactic reactions have been reported [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]. Post-Marketing Experience In a 5-year placebo-controlled trial, hospitalizations for supraventricular tachycardia and/or atrial fibrillation occurred with an incidence rate of 0.5% in COPD patients receiving ATROVENT CFC. In addition to the adverse reactions reported in the controlled clinical trials, adverse reactions have been identified during post approval use of ATROVENT. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure. Allergic-type reactions such as skin rash, angioedema including that of tongue, lips and face, urticaria (including giant urticaria), laryngospasm and anaphylactic reactions have been reported, with positive rechallenge in some cases. Additionally, urinary retention, mydriasis, gastrointestinal distress (diarrhea, nausea, vomiting), cough and bronchospasm, including paradoxical bronchospasm, hypersensitivity reactions, intraocular pressure increased, accommodation disorder, heart rate increased, pharyngeal edema, and gastrointestinal motility disorders have been reported during the post-marketing period with use of ATROVENT. Read the Atrovent HFA (ipratropium bromide inhalation aerosol) Side Effects Center for a complete guide to possible side effectsLearn More »

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The usual starting dose of ATROVENT HFA is two inhalations four times a day. Patients may take additional inhalations as required; however, the total number of inhalations should not exceed 12 in 24 hours. ATROVENT HFA is a solution aerosol that does not require shaking. However, as with any other metered-dose inhaler, some coordination is required between actuating the canister and inhaling the medication. Patients should “prime” or actuate ATROVENT HFA before using for the first time by releasing 2 test sprays into the air away from the face. In cases where the inhaler has not been used for more than 3 days, prime the inhaler again by releasing 2 test sprays into the air away from the face. Patients should avoid spraying ATROVENT HFA into their eyes. Each inhaler provides sufficient medication for 200 actuations. The inhaler should be discarded after the labeled number of actuations has been used. The amount of medication in each actuation cannot be assured after this point, even though the canister is not completely empty. Patients should be instructed on the proper use of their inhaler [see PATIENT INFORMATION].

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ATROVENT HFA has been used concomitantly with other drugs, including sympathomimetic bronchodilators, methylxanthines, oral and inhaled steroids commonly used in the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. With the exception of albuterol, there are no formal studies fully evaluating the interaction effects of ATROVENT HFA and these drugs with respect to safety and effectiveness. Anticholinergic Agents There is potential for an additive interaction with concomitantly used anticholinergic medications. Therefore, avoid coadministration of ATROVENT HFA with other anticholinergic-containing drugs as this may lead to an increase in anticholinergic adverse effects [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]. Read the Atrovent HFA Drug Interactions Center for a complete guide to possible interactions Learn More »

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ATROVENT HFA Inhalation Aerosol is indicated as a bronchodilator for maintenance treatment of bronchospasm associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), including chronic bronchitis and emphysema.

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ATROVENT HFA is contraindicated in the following conditions [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
  • Hypersensitivity to ipratropium bromide or other ATROVENT HFA components
  • Hypersensitivity to atropine or any of its derivatives
Last reviewed on RxList: 10/8/2012
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

Source: http://www.rxlist.com

Acute overdose by inhalation is unlikely since ipratropium bromide is not well absorbed systemically after inhalation or oral administration.

Source: http://www.rxlist.com

Dosage Forms And Strengths ATROVENT HFA is an inhalation aerosol supplied in a pressurized stainless steel canister as a metered-dose inhaler with a white mouthpiece that has a clear, colorless sleeve and a green protective cap. Each pressurized metered-dose aerosol unit for oral inhalation contains a 12.9 g solution of ipratropium bromide that provides sufficient medication for 200 actuations. After priming, each actuation of the inhaler delivers 21 mcg of ipratropium bromide (as the monohydrate) from the valve and delivers 17 mcg of ipratropium bromide from the mouthpiece. Storage And Handling ATROVENT HFA is supplied in a pressurized stainless steel canister as a metered-dose inhaler with a white mouthpiece that has a clear, colorless sleeve and a green protective cap (NDC 0597-0087-17). The mouthpiece has an actuation indicator visible through a small window. The indicator typically moves during every 5 to 7 actuations. It displays the approximate number of actuations remaining in increments of 20, starting at “200” and decreasing until it reaches “0”. The ATROVENT HFA canister is to be used only with the accompanying ATROVENT HFA mouthpiece. This mouthpiece should not be used with other aerosol medications. Similarly, the canister should not be used with other mouthpieces. After priming, each actuation of ATROVENT HFA delivers 21 mcg of ipratropium bromide from the valve and 17 mcg from the mouthpiece. Each canister has a net weight of 12.9 grams and provides sufficient medication for 200 actuations. The inhaler should be discarded after the labeled number of actuations has been used when the indicator displays “0”. The amount of medication in each actuation cannot be assured after this point, even though the canister is not completely empty. Storage Store at 25°C (77°F); excursions permitted to 15° to 30°C (59° to 86°F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature]. For optimal results, the canister should be at room temperature before use. Contents Under Pressure: Do not puncture. Do not use or store near heat or open flame. Exposure to temperatures above 120°F may cause bursting. Never throw the inhaler into a fire or incinerator. Keep out of reach of children. Avoid spraying in eyes. Distributed by: Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Ridgefield, CT 06877 USA. Licensed from: Boehringer Ingelheim International GmbH Last reviewed on RxList: 10/8/2012
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

Source: http://www.rxlist.com

Use for Maintenance Treatment Only ATROVENT HFA is a bronchodilator for the maintenance treatment of bronchospasm associated with COPD and is not indicated for the initial treatment of acute episodes of bronchospasm where rescue therapy is required for rapid response. Hypersensitivity Reactions, Including Anaphylaxis Hypersensitivity reactions including urticaria, angioedema, rash, bronchospasm, anaphylaxis, and oropharyngeal edema may occur after the administration of ATROVENT HFA. In clinical trials and post marketing experience with ipratropium containing products, hypersensitivity reactions such as skin rash, pruritus, angioedema of tongue, lips and face, urticaria (including giant urticaria), laryngospasm and anaphylactic reactions have been reported [see ADVERSE REACTIONS]. If such a reaction occurs, therapy with ATROVENT HFA should be stopped at once and alternative treatment should be considered [see CONTRAINDICATIONS]. Paradoxical Bronchospasm ATROVENT HFA can produce paradoxical bronchospasm that can be life threatening. If this occurs, treatment with ATROVENT HFA should be stopped and other treatments considered. Ocular Effects ATROVENT HFA is an anticholinergic and its use may increase intraocular pressure. This may result in precipitation or worsening of narrow-angle glaucoma. Therefore, ATROVENT HFA should be used with caution in patients with narrow-angle glaucoma. Patients should avoid spraying ATROVENT HFA into their eyes. If a patient sprays ATROVENT HFA into their eyes, they may cause eye pain or discomfort, temporary blurring of vision, mydriasis, visual halos or colored images in association with red eyes from conjunctival and corneal congestion. Advise patients to consult their physician immediately if any of these symptoms develop while using ATROVENT HFA Inhalation Aerosol. Urinary Retention ATROVENT HFA is an anticholinergic and may cause urinary retention. Therefore caution is advised when administering ATROVENT HFA Inhalation Aerosol to patients with prostatic hyperplasia, or bladder-neck obstruction [see DRUG INTERACTIONS]. Patient Counseling Information See FDA-Approved Patient Labeling Appropriate and safe use of ATROVENT HFA includes providing the patient with the information listed below and an understanding of the way it should be administered [see FDA-approved Patient Labeling]. Advise patients that ATROVENT HFA is a bronchodilator for the maintenance treatment of bronchospasm associated with COPD and is not indicated for the initial treatment of acute episodes of bronchospasm where rescue therapy is required for rapid response. Paradoxical Bronchospasm Inform patients that ATROVENT HFA can produce paradoxical bronchospasm that can be life-threatening. If paradoxical bronchospasm occurs, patients should discontinue using ATROVENT HFA. Ocular Effects Caution patients to avoid spraying the aerosol into their eyes and be advised that this may result in precipitation or worsening of narrow-angle glaucoma, mydriasis, increased intraocular pressure, acute eye pain or discomfort, temporary blurring of vision, visual halos or colored images in association with red eyes from conjunctival and corneal congestion. Patients should also be advised that should any combination of these symptoms develop, they should consult their physician immediately. Since dizziness, accommodation disorder, mydriasis, and blurred vision may occur with use of ATROVENT, patients should be cautioned about engaging in activities requiring balance and visual acuity such as driving a car or operating appliances or machinery. Urinary Retention Inform patients that ATROVENT HFA may cause urinary retention and should be advised to consult their physicians if they experience difficulty with urination. Frequency of Use The action of ATROVENT HFA should last 2-4 hours. Advise patients not to increase the dose or frequency of ATROVENT HFA without patients consulting their physician. Advise patients to seek immediate medical attention if treatment with ATROVENT HFA becomes less effective for symptomatic relief, their symptoms become worse, and/or patients need to use the product more frequently than usual. Concomitant Drug Use Advise patients on the use of ATROVENT HFA in relation to other inhaled drugs. Use Only as Prescribed Remind patients that ATROVENT HFA should be used consistently as prescribed throughout the course of therapy. Preparation for Use and Priming Instruct patients that priming ATROVENT HFA is essential to ensure appropriate content of the medication in each actuation. Patients do not have to shake the ATROVENT HFA canister before use [see FDA-approved Patient Labeling]. FDA-Approved Patient Labeling Remind patients to read and follow the accompanying “Instructions for Use”, which should be dispensed with the product. Nonclinical Toxicology Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility Two-year oral carcinogenicity studies in rats and mice have revealed no carcinogenic activity at doses up to 6 mg/kg (approximately 240 and 120 times the maximum recommended human daily inhalation dose (MRHDID) in adults on a mg/m² basis, respectively). Results of various mutagenicity/clastogenicity studies (Ames test, mouse dominant lethal test, mouse micronucleus test and chromosome aberrations of bone marrow in Chinese hamsters) were negative. Fertility of male or female rats at oral doses up to 50 mg/kg (approximately 2000 times the MRHDID in adults on a mg/m² basis) was unaffected by ipratropium bromide administration. At an oral dose of 500 mg/kg (approximately 20,000 times the MRHDID in adults on a mg/m² basis), ipratropium bromide produced a decrease in the conception rate. Use In Specific Populations Pregnancy Teratogenic Effects: Pregnancy Category B There are no adequate and well-controlled studies of ATROVENT HFA (ipratropium bromide) Inhalation Aerosol in pregnant women. ATROVENT HFA should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus. Oral reproduction studies were performed in mice, rats and rabbits at doses approximately 200, 40,000, and 10,000 times, respectively, the maximum recommended human daily inhalation dose (MRHDID) in adults (on a mg/m² basis at maternal doses in each species of 10, 1,000, and 125 mg/kg/day, respectively). Inhalation reproduction studies were conducted in rats and rabbits at doses approximately 60 and 140 times, respectively, the MRHDID in adults (on a mg/m² basis at maternal doses of 1.5 and 1.8 mg/kg/day, respectively). These studies demonstrated no evidence of teratogenic effects as a result of ipratropium bromide. Embryotoxicity was observed as increased resorption in rats at oral doses approximately 3,600 times the MRHDID in adults (on a mg/m² basis at maternal doses of 90 mg/kg/day and above). This effect is not considered relevant to human use due to the large doses at which it was observed and the difference in route of administration. Nursing Mothers It is not known whether the active component, ipratropium bromide, is excreted in human milk. Because lipid-insoluble quaternary cations pass into breast milk, caution should be exercised when ATROVENT HFA is administered to a nursing mother. Pediatric Use Safety and effectiveness in the pediatric population have not been established. Geriatric Use In the pivotal 12-week study, both ATROVENT HFA and ATROVENT CFC formulations were equally effective in patients over 65 years of age and under 65 years of age. Of the total number of subjects in clinical studies of ATROVENT HFA, 57% were ≥ 65 years of age. No overall differences in safety or effectiveness were observed between these subjects and younger subjects. Last reviewed on RxList: 10/8/2012
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

Source: http://www.rxlist.com

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