Drug: Arcapta Neohaler

ARCAPTA NEOHALER consists of a dry powder formulation of indacaterol maleate for oral inhalation only with the NEOHALER inhaler. The inhalation powder is packaged in clear gelatin capsules. Each clear, hard gelatin capsule contains a dry powder blend of 75 mcg of indacaterol (equivalent to 97 mcg of indacaterol maleate) with approximately 25 mg of lactose monohydrate (which contains trace levels of milk protein) as the carrier. The active component of ARCAPTA NEOHALER is indacaterol maleate, a (R) enantiomer. Indacaterol maleate is a selective beta2-adrenergic agonist. Its chemical name is (R)-5-[2-(5,6-Diethylindan-2-ylamino)-1-hydroxyethyl]-8hydroxy-1H-quinolin-2-one maleate; its structural formula is Indacaterol maleate has a molecular weight of 508.56, and its empirical formula is C24H28N2O3 • C4H4O4. Indacaterol maleate is a white to very slightly grayish or very slightly yellowish powder. Indacaterol maleate is freely soluble in Nmethylpyrrolidone and dimethylformamide, slightly soluble in methanol, ethanol, propylene glycol and polyethylene glycol 400, very slightly soluble in water, isopropyl alcohol and practically insoluble in 0.9% sodium chloride in water, ethyl acetate and n-octanol. The NEOHALER inhaler is a plastic device used for inhaling ARCAPTA. The amount of drug delivered to the lung will depend on patient factors, such as inspiratory flow rate and inspiratory time. Under standardized in vitro testing at a fixed flow rate of 60 L/min for 2 seconds, the NEOHALER inhaler delivered 57 mcg for the 75 mcg dose strength (equivalent to 73.9 mcg of indacaterol maleate) from the mouthpiece. Peak inspiratory flow rates (PIFR) achievable through the NEOHALER inhaler were evaluated in 26 adult patients with COPD of varying severity. Mean PIFR was 95 L/min (range 52-133 L/min) for adult patients. Approximately ninety-five percent of the population studied generated a PIFR through the device exceeding 60 L/min.

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Long-acting beta2-adrenergic agonists, such as ARCAPTA NEOHALER, increase the risk of asthma-related death. ARCAPTA NEOHALER is not indicated for the treatment of asthma [See BOXED WARNING and WARNING AND PRECAUTIONS]. Clinical Trials Experience in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice. The ARCAPTA NEOHALER safety database reflects exposure of 2516 patients to ARCAPTA NEOHALER at doses of 75 mcg or greater for at least 12 weeks in six confirmatory randomized, double-blind, placebo and active-controlled clinical trials. In these trials, 449 patients were exposed to the recommended dose of 75 mcg for up to 3 months, and 144, 583 and 425 COPD patients were exposed to a dose of 150, 300 or 600 mcg for one year, respectively. Overall, patients had a mean pre-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) percent predicted of 54%. The mean age of patients was 64 years, with 47% of patients aged 65 years or older, and the majority (88%) was Caucasian. In these six clinical trials, 48% of patients treated with any dose of ARCAPTA NEOHALER reported an adverse reaction compared with 43% of patients treated with placebo. The proportion of patients who discontinued treatment due to adverse reaction was 5% for ARCAPTA NEOHALER-treated patients and 5% for placebo-treated patients. The most common adverse reactions that lead to discontinuation of ARCAPTA NEOHALER were COPD and dyspnea. The most common serious adverse reactions were COPD exacerbation, pneumonia, angina pectoris, and atrial fibrillation, which occurred at similar rates across treatment groups. Table 1 displays adverse drug reactions reported by at least 2% of patients (and higher than placebo) during a 3 month exposure at the recommended 75 mcg once daily dose. Adverse drug reactions are listed according to MedDRA (version 13.0) system organ class and sorted in descending order of frequency. Table 1: Number and frequency of adverse drug reactions greater than 2% (and higher than placebo) in COPD patients exposed to ARCAPTA NEOHALER 75 mcg for up to 3 months in multiple dose, controlled trials
  Indacaterol 75 mcg once daily
n=449 n (%) Placebo
n=445 n (%) Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders   Cough 29 (6.5) 20 (4.5)   Oropharyngeal pain 10 (2.2) 3 (0.7) Infections and infestations   Nasopharyngitis 24 (5.3) 12 (2.7) Nervous system disorders   Headache 23 (5.1) 11 (2.5) Gastrointestinal disorders -   Nausea 11 (2.4) 4 (0.9) In these trials the overall frequency of all cardiovascular adverse reactions was 2.5% for ARCAPTA NEOHALER 75 mcg and 1.6% for placebo during a 3 month exposure. There were no frequently occurring specific cardiovascular adverse reactions for ARCAPTA NEOHALER 75 mcg (frequency at least 1% and greater than placebo). Additional adverse drug reactions reported in greater than 2% (and higher than on placebo) in patients dosed with 150, 300 or 600 mcg for up to 12 months were as follows:
  • Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders: muscle spasm, musculoskeletal pain
  • General disorders and administration site conditions: edema peripheral
  • Metabolism and nutrition disorder: diabetes mellitus, hyperglycemia
  • Infections and infestations: sinusitis, upper respiratory tract infection
Cough experienced post-inhalation In the clinical trials, health care providers observed during clinic visits that an average of 24% of patients experienced a cough on at least 20% of visits following inhalation of the recommended 75 mcg dose of ARCAPTA NEOHALER compared to 7% of patients receiving placebo. The cough usually occurred within 15 seconds following inhalation and lasted for no more than 15 seconds. Cough following inhalation in clinical trials was not associated with bronchospasm, exacerbations, deteriorations of disease or loss of efficacy. Clinical Trials Experience in Asthma In a 6-month randomized, active controlled asthma safety trial, 805 adult patients with moderate to severe persistent asthma were treated with ARCAPTA NEOHALER 300 mcg (n=268), ARCAPTA NEOHALER 600 mcg (n=268), and salmeterol (n=269), all concomitant with inhaled corticosteroids, which were not co-randomized. Of these patients, there were 2 respiratory-related deaths in the ARCAPTA NEOHALER 300 mcg dose group. There were no deaths in the ARCAPTA NEOHALER 600 mcg dose group or in the salmeterol active control group. Serious adverse reactions related to asthma exacerbation were reported for 2 patients in the indacaterol 300 mcg group, 3 patients in the indacaterol 600 mcg group, and no patients in the salmeterol active control group. In addition, a two-week dose-ranging trial was conducted in 511 adult patients with mild persistent asthma taking inhaled corticosteroids. No deaths, intubations, or serious adverse reactions related to asthma exacerbation were reported in this trial. Postmarketing Experience The following adverse reactions have been identified during worldwide post-approval use of indacaterol, the active ingredient in ARCAPTA NEOHALER. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure. These adverse reactions are: tachycardia/heart rate increase/palpitations, pruritus/rash and dizziness. Read the Arcapta Neohaler (indacaterol inhalation powder) Side Effects Center for a complete guide to possible side effectsLearn More »

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DO NOT SWALLOW ARCAPTA CAPSULES FOR USE WITH NEOHALER DEVICE ONLY FOR ORAL INHALATION ONLY ARCAPTA capsules must not be swallowed as the intended effects on the lungs will not be obtained. The contents of ARCAPTA capsules are only for oral inhalation and should only be used with the NEOHALER device. The recommended dosage of ARCAPTA NEOHALER is the once-daily inhalation of the contents of one 75 mcg ARCAPTA capsule using the NEOHALER inhaler. ARCAPTA NEOHALER should be administered once daily every day at the same time of the day by the orally inhaled route only. If a dose is missed, the next dose should be taken as soon as it is remembered. Do not use ARCAPTA NEOHALER more than one time every 24 hours. ARCAPTA capsules must always be stored in the blister, and only removed IMMEDIATELY BEFORE USE. No dosage adjustment is required for geriatric patients, patients with mild and moderate hepatic impairment, or renally impaired patients. No data are available for subjects with severe hepatic impairment [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].

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Adrenergic Drugs If additional adrenergic drugs are to be administered by any route, they should be used with caution because the sympathetic effects of ARCAPTA NEOHALER may be potentiated [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]. Xanthine Derivatives, Steroids, or Diuretics Concomitant treatment with xanthine derivatives, steroids, or diuretics may potentiate any hypokalemic effect of ARCAPTA NEOHALER [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]. Non-Potassium Sparing Diuretics The ECG changes or hypokalemia that may result from the administration of non-potassium sparing diuretics (such as loop or thiazide diuretics) can be acutely worsened by beta-agonists, especially when the recommended dose of the betaagonist is exceeded. Although the clinical relevance of these effects is not known, caution is advised in the coadministration of ARCAPTA NEOHALER with non-potassium-sparing diuretics. Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors, Tricyclic Antidepressants, QTc Prolonging Drugs Indacaterol, as with other beta2-agonists, should be administered with extreme caution to patients being treated with monoamine oxidase inhibitors, tricyclic antidepressants, or other drugs known to prolong the QTc interval because the action of adrenergic agonists on the cardiovascular system may be potentiated by these agents. Drugs that are known to prolong the QTc interval may have an increased risk of ventricular arrhythmias. Beta-Blockers Beta-adrenergic receptor antagonists (beta-blockers) and ARCAPTA NEOHALER may interfere with the effect of each other when administered concurrently. Beta-blockers not only block the therapeutic effects of beta-agonists, but may produce severe bronchospasm in COPD patients. Therefore, patients with COPD should not normally be treated with beta-blockers. However, under certain circumstances, e.g. as prophylaxis after myocardial infarction, there may be no acceptable alternatives to the use of beta-blockers in patients with COPD. In this setting, cardioselective beta-blockers could be considered, although they should be administered with caution. Inhibitors of Cytochrome P450 3A4 and P-gp Efflux Transporter Drug interaction studies were carried out using potent and specific inhibitors of CYP3A4 and P-gp (i.e., ketoconazole, erythromycin, verapamil and ritonavir). The data suggest that systemic clearance is influenced by modulation of both P-gp and CYP3A4 activities and that the 1.9-fold AUC0-24 increase caused by the strong dual inhibitor ketoconazole reflects the impact of maximal combined inhibition. ARCAPTA NEOHALER was evaluated in clinical trials for up to one year at doses up to 600 mcg. No dose adjustment is warranted at the 75 mcg dose. Read the Arcapta Neohaler Drug Interactions Center for a complete guide to possible interactions Learn More »

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Maintenance Treatment of COPD ARCAPTA NEOHALER is a long-acting beta2-agonist indicated for long-term, once-daily maintenance bronchodilator treatment of airflow obstruction in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), including chronic bronchitis and/or emphysema. Important Limitations of Use ARCAPTA NEOHALER is not indicated to treat acute deteriorations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]. ARCAPTA NEOHALER is not indicated to treat asthma. The safety and effectiveness of ARCAPTA NEOHALER in asthma have not been established.

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All LABA are contraindicated in patients with asthma without use of a long-term asthma control medication. [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]. ARCAPTA NEOHALER is not indicated for the treatment of asthma. ARCAPTA NEOHALER is contraindicated in patients with a history of hypersensitivity to indacaterol or to any of the ingredients. [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]. Last reviewed on RxList: 10/15/2012
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

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Human Experience In COPD patients single doses of 40 times the 75 mcg dose were associated with moderate increases in pulse rate, systolic blood pressure and QTc interval. The expected signs and symptoms associated with overdosage of ARCAPTA NEOHALER are those of excessive betaadrenergic stimulation and occurrence or exaggeration of any of the signs and symptoms, e.g., angina, hypertension or hypotension, tachycardia, with rates up to 200 bpm, arrhythmias, nervousness, headache, tremor, dry mouth, palpitation, muscle cramps, nausea, dizziness, fatigue, malaise, hypokalemia, hyperglycemia, metabolic acidosis and insomnia. As with all inhaled sympathomimetic medications, cardiac arrest and even death may be associated with an overdose of ARCAPTA NEOHALER. Treatment of overdosage consists of discontinuation of ARCAPTA NEOHALER together with institution of appropriate symptomatic and supportive therapy. The judicious use of a cardioselective beta-receptor blocker may be considered, bearing in mind that such medication can produce bronchospasm. There is insufficient evidence to determine if dialysis is beneficial for overdosage of ARCAPTA NEOHALER. Cardiac monitoring is recommended in cases of overdosage.

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Dosage Forms And Strengths Inhalation powder: 75 mcg: hard gelatin capsule with black product code “IDL 75” above a bar printed on one side of the capsule and the logo printed on the other side. 75 mcg ARCAPTA NEOHALER contains ARCAPTA (indacaterol inhalation powder) capsules packaged in aluminum blister cards, one NEOHALER inhaler, and an FDA approved Medication Guide. Unit Dose (blister pack), Box of 30 (5 blister cards with 6 capsules each) NDC 0078-0619-15 The NEOHALER inhaler consists of a white protective cap and a base with mouthpiece, capsule chamber and two translucent red push buttons. Storage and Handling Store in a dry place at 25°C (77°F); excursions permitted to 15-30°C (59-86° F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature]. 75 mcg: Protect capsule from light and moisture.
  • ARCAPTA capsules should be used with the NEOHALER inhaler only. The NEOHALER inhaler should not be used with any other capsules.
  • Capsules should always be stored in the blister and only removed from the blister immediately before use.
  • Always use the new NEOHALER inhaler provided with each new prescription. Keep out of the reach of children.
Manufacturer details: n.a. Revised: 09/2012 Last reviewed on RxList: 10/15/2012
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

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Asthma-Related Death [See BOXED WARNING]
  • Data from a large placebo-controlled study in asthma patients showed that long-acting beta2-adrenergic agonists may increase the risk of asthma-related death. Data are not available to determine whether the rate of death in patients with COPD is increased by long-acting beta2-adrenergic agonists.
  • A 28-week, placebo-controlled US study comparing the safety of another long-acting beta2-adrenergic agonist (salmeterol) with placebo, each added to usual asthma therapy, showed an increase in asthma-related deaths in patients receiving salmeterol (13/13,176 in patients treated with salmeterol vs. 3/13,179 in patients treated with placebo; RR 4.37, 95% CI 1.25, 15.34). The increased risk of asthma-related death is considered a class effect of the long-acting beta2-adrenergic agonists, including ARCAPTA NEOHALER. No study adequate to determine whether the rate of asthma-related death is increased in patients treated with ARCAPTA NEOHALER has been conducted. The safety and efficacy of ARCAPTA NEOHALER in patients with asthma have not been established. ARCAPTA NEOHALER is not indicated for the treatment of asthma. [see CONTRAINDICATIONS].
  • Serious asthma-related events, including death, were reported in clinical studies with ARCAPTA NEOHALER. The sizes of these studies were not adequate to precisely quantify the differences in serious asthma exacerbation rates between treatment groups. [see ADVERSE REACTIONS].
Deterioration of Disease and Acute Episodes ARCAPTA NEOHALER should not be initiated in patients with acutely deteriorating COPD, which may be a life-threatening condition. ARCAPTA NEOHALER has not been studied in patients with acutely deteriorating COPD. The use of ARCAPTA NEOHALER in this setting is inappropriate. ARCAPTA NEOHALER should not be used for the relief of acute symptoms, i.e. as rescue therapy for the treatment of acute episodes of bronchospasm. ARCAPTA NEOHALER has not been studied in the relief of acute symptoms and extra doses should not be used for that purpose. Acute symptoms should be treated with an inhaled short-acting beta2-agonist. When beginning ARCAPTA NEOHALER, patients who have been taking inhaled, short-acting beta2-agonists on a regular basis (e.g., four times a day) should be instructed to discontinue the regular use of these drugs and use them only for symptomatic relief of acute respiratory symptoms. When prescribing ARCAPTA NEOHALER, the healthcare provider should also prescribe an inhaled, short-acting beta2- agonist and instruct the patient on how it should be used. Increasing inhaled beta2-agonist use is a signal of deteriorating disease for which prompt medical attention is indicated. COPD may deteriorate acutely over a period of hours or chronically over several days or longer. If ARCAPTA NEOHALER no longer controls the symptoms of bronchoconstriction, or the patient's inhaled, short-acting beta2-agonist becomes less effective or the patient needs more inhalation of short-acting beta2-agonist than usual, these may be markers of deterioration of disease. In this setting, a re-evaluation of the patient and the COPD treatment regimen should be undertaken at once. Increasing the daily dosage of ARCAPTA NEOHALER beyond the recommended dose is not appropriate in this situation. Excessive Use of ARCAPTA NEOHALER and Use with Other Long-Acting Beta2-Agonists As with other inhaled beta2-adrenergic drugs, ARCAPTA NEOHALER should not be used more often, at higher doses than recommended, or in conjunction with other medications containing long-acting beta2-agonists, as an overdose may result. Clinically significant cardiovascular effects and fatalities have been reported in association with excessive use of inhaled sympathomimetic drugs. Immediate Hypersensitivity Reactions Immediate hypersensitivity reactions may occur after administration of ARCAPTA NEOHALER. If signs suggesting allergic reactions (in particular, difficulties in breathing or swallowing, swelling of tongue, lips and face, urticaria, skin rash) occur, ARCAPTA NEOHALER should be discontinued immediately and alternative therapy instituted. Paradoxical Bronchospasm As with other inhaled beta2-agonists, ARCAPTA NEOHALER may produce paradoxical bronchospasm that may be life-threatening. If paradoxical bronchospasm occurs, ARCAPTA NEOHALER should be discontinued immediately and alternative therapy instituted. Cardiovascular Effects ARCAPTA NEOHALER, like other beta2-agonists, can produce a clinically significant cardiovascular effect in some patients as measured by increases in pulse rate, systolic or diastolic blood pressure, or symptoms. If such effects occur, ARCAPTA NEOHALER may need to be discontinued. In addition, beta-agonists have been reported to produce ECG changes, such as flattening of the T wave, prolongation of the QTc interval, and ST segment depression, although the clinical significance of these findings is unknown. Therefore, ARCAPTA NEOHALER, like other sympathomimetic amines, should be used with caution in patients with cardiovascular disorders, especially coronary insufficiency, cardiac arrhythmias, and hypertension. Coexisting Conditions ARCAPTA NEOHALER, like other sympathomimetic amines, should be used with caution in patients with convulsive disorders or thyrotoxicosis, and in patients who are unusually responsive to sympathomimetic amines. Doses of the related beta2-agonist albuterol, when administered intravenously, have been reported to aggravate pre-existing diabetes mellitus and ketoacidosis. Hypokalemia and Hyperglycemia Beta2-agonist medications may produce significant hypokalemia in some patients, possibly through intracellular shunting, which has the potential to produce adverse cardiovascular effects [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY]. The decrease in serum potassium is usually transient, not requiring supplementation. Inhalation of high doses of beta2-adrenergic agonists may produce increases in plasma glucose. Clinically notable decreases in serum potassium or changes in blood glucose were infrequent during clinical studies with long-term administration of ARCAPTA NEOHALER with the rates similar to those for placebo controls. ARCAPTA NEOHALER has not been investigated in patients whose diabetes mellitus is not well controlled. Patient Counseling Information See FDA-approved patient labeling (Medication Guide) Asthma-Related Death Patients should be informed that LABA, such as ARCAPTA NEOHALER, increase the risk of asthma-related death. ARCAPTA NEOHALER is not indicated for the treatment of asthma. Instructions for Administering ARCAPTA NEOHALER It is important for patients to understand how to correctly administer ARCAPTA capsules using the NEOHALER device [see Instructions for Use at the end of the Medication Guide]. Patients should be instructed that ARCAPTA capsules should only be administered via the NEOHALER device and the NEOHALER device should not be used for administering other medications. The contents of ARCAPTA capsules are for oral inhalation only and must not be swallowed. ARCAPTA capsules should always be stored in sealed blisters. Only one ARCAPTA capsule should be removed immediately before use, or its effectiveness may be reduced. Additional ARCAPTA capsules that are exposed to air (i.e. not intended for immediate use) should be discarded. Not for Acute Symptoms ARCAPTA NEOHALER is not meant to relieve acute symptoms or exacerbations of COPD and extra doses should not be used for that purpose. Acute symptoms should be treated with an inhaled, short-acting beta2-agonist such as albuterol. (The healthcare provider should provide the patient with such medication and instruct the patient in how it should be used.) Patients should be instructed to notify their physician immediately if they experience any of the following:
  • Worsening of symptoms
  • Decreasing effectiveness of inhaled, short-acting beta2-agonists
  • Need for more inhalations than usual of inhaled, short-acting beta2-agonists
  • Significant decrease in lung function as outlined by the physician.
Patients should not stop therapy with ARCAPTA NEOHALER without physician/provider guidance since symptoms may recur after discontinuation. Do Not Use Additional Long-Acting Beta2-Agonists Patients who have been taking inhaled, short-acting beta2-agonists on a regular basis should be instructed to discontinue the regular use of these products and use them only for the symptomatic relief of acute symptoms. When patients are prescribed ARCAPTA NEOHALER, other inhaled medications containing long-acting beta2-agonists should not be used. Patients should not use more than the recommended once daily dose of ARCAPTA NEOHALER. Excessive use of sympathomimetics may cause significant cardiovascular effects, and may be fatal. Risks Associated With Beta-Agonist Therapy Patients should be informed of adverse effects associated with beta2-agonists, such as palpitations, chest pain, rapid heart rate, tremor, or nervousness. Nonclinical Toxicology Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility Long-term studies were conducted in transgenic mice using oral administration and in rats using inhalation administration to evaluate the carcinogenic potential of indacaterol maleate. Indacaterol did not show a statistically significant increase in tumor formation in mice or rats. Lifetime treatment of rats resulted in increased incidences of benign ovarian leiomyoma and focal hyperplasia of ovarian smooth muscle in females at doses approximately 270-times the dose of 75 mcg once-daily for humans (on a mg/m² basis). A 26-week oral (gavage) study in CB6F1/TgrasH2 hemizygous mice with indacaterol did not show any evidence of tumorigenicity at doses approximately 39,000-times the dose of 75 mcg once-daily for humans (on a mg/m2 basis). Increases in leiomyomas of the female rat genital tract have been similarly demonstrated with other beta2-adrenergic agonist drugs. The relevance of these findings to human use is unknown. Indacaterol was not mutagenic or clastogenic in Ames test, chromosome aberration test in V79 Chinese hamster cells, and bone marrow micronucleus test in rats. Indacaterol did not impair fertility of rats in reproduction studies. Use In Specific Populations Pregnancy Teratogenic Effects: Pregnancy Category C There are no adequate and well-controlled studies with ARCAPTA NEOHALER in pregnant women. ARCAPTA NEOHALER should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus. Indacaterol was not teratogenic following subcutaneous administration to rats and rabbits at doses up to 1 mg/kg, approximately 130 and 260 times, respectively, the 75 mcg dose on a mg/m² basis. Labor and Delivery There are no adequate and well-controlled human studies that have investigated effects of ARCAPTA NEOHALER on preterm labor or labor at term. Because of the potential for beta-agonist interference with uterine contractility, use of ARCAPTA NEOHALER during labor should be restricted to those patients in whom the benefits clearly outweigh the risks. Nursing Mothers It is not known that the active component of ARCAPTA NEOHALER, indacaterol, is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk and because indacaterol has been detected in the milk of lactating rats, caution should be exercised when ARCAPTA NEOHALER is administered to nursing women. Pediatric Use ARCAPTA NEOHALER is not indicated for use in children. The safety and effectiveness of ARCAPTA NEOHALER in pediatric patients have not been established. Geriatric Use Based on available data, no adjustment of ARCAPTA NEOHALER dosage in geriatric patients is warranted. Of the total number of patients who received ARCAPTA NEOHALER at the recommended dose of 75 mcg once daily in the clinical studies from the pooled 3-month database, 239 were < 65 years, 153 were 65–74 years and 57 were ≥ 75 years of age. No overall differences in effectiveness were observed, and in the 3-month pooled data, the adverse drug reaction profile was similar in the older population compared to the patient population overall. When treated at higher doses (300 mcg and 600 mcg) over the course of a year, the adverse drug reaction profiles for patients > 65 years was similar to that of the general patient population. Hepatic Impairment Patients with mild and moderate hepatic impairment showed no relevant changes in Cmax or AUC, nor did protein binding differ between mild and moderate hepatically impaired subjects and their healthy controls. Studies in subjects with severe hepatic impairment were not performed. Renal Impairment Due to the very low contribution of the urinary pathway to total body elimination, a study in renally impaired subjects was not performed. Last reviewed on RxList: 10/15/2012
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

Source: http://www.rxlist.com

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