Drug: Divigel

Divigel® (estradiol gel) 0.1% is a clear, colorless gel, which is odorless when dry. It is designed to deliver sustained circulating concentrations of estradiol when applied once daily to the skin. The gel is applied to a small area (200 cm²) of the thigh in a thin, quick-drying layer. Divigel® is available in three doses of 0.25, 0.5, and 1.0 g for topical application (corresponding to 0.25, 0.5, and 1.0 mg estradiol, respectively). The active component of the topical gel is estradiol. Estradiol is a white crystalline powder, chemically described as estra-1,3,5(10)-triene-3,17β-diol. It has an empirical formula of C18H24O2 and molecular weight of 272.39. The structural formula is: The remaining components of the gel (carbomer, ethanol, propylene glycol, purified water, and triethanolamine) are pharmacologically inactive.

Source: http://www.rxlist.com

See BOXED WARNINGS, WARNINGS and PRECAUTIONS. Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice. The adverse reaction information from clinical trials does, however, provide a basis for identifying the adverse events that appear to be related to drug use and for approximating rates. Divigel® was studied at doses of 0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 g/day in a 12-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled study that included a total of 495 postmenopausal women (86.5% Caucasian). The adverse events that occurred at a rate greater than 5% in any of the treatment groups are summarized in Table 5. Table 5: Number (%) of Subjects with Common Adverse Events* in a 12-Week Placebo- Controlled Study of Divigel®
SYSTEM ORGAN CLASS Preferred Term Divigel® Placebo
N=125
n (%) 0.25 g/day
N=122
n (%) 0.5 g/day
N=123
n (%) 1.0 g/day
N=125
n (%) INFECTIONS & INFESTATIONS   Nasopharyngitis 7 (5.7) 5 (4.1) 6 (4.8) 5 (4.0)   Upper Respiratory Tract Infection 7 (5.7) 3 (2.4) 2 (1.6) 2 (1.6)   Vaginal mycosis 1 (0.8) 3 (2.4) 8 (6.4) 4(3.2) REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM & BREAST DISORDERS   Breast Tenderness 3 (2.5) 7 (5.7) 11 (8.8) 2 (1.6)   Metrorrhagia 5 (4.1) 7 (5.7) 12 (9.6) 2 (1.6) * Adverse events reported by ≥5% of patients in any treatment group. In a 12-week placebo-controlled study of Divigel®, application site reactions were seen in <1% of subjects. The following additional adverse reactions have been reported with estrogen and/or progestin therapy.
  1. Genitourinary system: Changes in vaginal bleeding pattern and abnormal withdrawal bleeding or flow; breakthrough bleeding; spotting; dysmenorrhea; increase in size of uterine leiomyomata; vaginitis, including vaginal candidiasis; change in amount of cervical secretion; changes in cervical ectropion; ovarian cancer; endometrial hyperplasia; endometrial cancer; vaginal discharge.
  2. Breasts: Tenderness; enlargement, pain, nipple discharge, galactorrhea, fibrocystic breast changes; breast cancer; nipple pain.
  3. Cardiovascular: Deep and superficial venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism; thrombophlebitis; myocardial infarction; stroke; increase in blood pressure.
  4. Gastrointestinal: Nausea; vomiting; abdominal cramps; bloating; cholestatic jaundice; increased incidence of gallbladder disease; pancreatitis; enlargement of hepatic hemangiomas; abdominal pain.
  5. Skin: Chloasma or melasma, which may persist when drug is discontinued; erythema multiforme; erythema nodosum; hemorrhagic eruption; loss of scalp hair; hirsutism; pruritus; rash.
  6. Eyes: Retinal vascular thrombosis, intolerance to contact lenses.
  7. Central Nervous System: Headache; migraine; dizziness; mental depression; chorea; nervousness; mood disturbances; irritability; exacerbation of epilepsy; dementia.
  8. Miscellaneous: Increase or decrease in weight; reduced carbohydrate tolerance; aggravation of porphyria; edema; arthralgias; leg cramps; changes in libido; urticaria; angioedema; anaphylactoid/anaphylactic reactions; hypocalcemia; exacerbation of asthma; increased triglycerides; muscle cramps.
Read the Divigel (estradiol gel) Side Effects Center for a complete guide to possible side effectsLearn More »

Source: http://www.rxlist.com

When estrogen is prescribed for a postmenopausal woman with a uterus, a progestin should also be initiated to reduce the risk of endometrial cancer. A woman without a uterus does not need progestin. Use of estrogen, alone or in combination with a progestin, should be with the lowest effective dose and for the shortest duration consistent with treatment goals and risks for the individual woman. Patients should be re-evaluated periodically as clinically appropriate (e.g., 3-month to 6-month intervals) to determine if treatment is still necessary (see BOXED WARNINGS and WARNINGS). For women who have a uterus, adequate diagnostic measures, such as endometrial sampling, when indicated, should be undertaken to rule out malignancy in cases of undiagnosed persistent or recurring abnormal vaginal bleeding. Divigel® (estradiol gel) 0.1%, at doses of 0.25, 0.5, and 1.0 g/day, is indicated for topical use in the treatment of moderate to severe vasomotor symptoms associated with menopause. Each gram of Divigel® contains 1 mg of estradiol. Patients should be treated with the lowest effective dose of Divigel®. Generally, women should be started at 0.25 gram Divigel® daily. Subsequent dosage adjustments may be made based upon the individual patient response. This dose should be periodically reassessed by the healthcare provider. Divigel® should be applied once daily on the skin of either the right or left upper thigh. The application surface area should be about 5 by 7 inches (approximately the size of two palm prints). The entire contents of a unit dose packet should be applied each day. To avoid potential skin irritation, Divigel® should be applied to the right or left upper thigh on alternating days. Divigel® should not be applied on the face, breasts, or irritated skin or in or around the vagina. After application, the gel should be allowed to dry before dressing. The application site should not be washed within 1 hour after applying Divigel®. Contact of the gel with eyes should be avoided. Hands should be washed after application.

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Drug and Laboratory Test Interactions
  1. Accelerated prothrombin time, partial thromboplastin time, and platelet aggregation time; increased platelet count; increased factors II, VII antigen, VIII antigen, VIII coagulant activity, IX, X, XII, VII-X complex, II-VII-X complex, and beta-thromboglobulin; decreased levels of anti-factor Xa and antithrombin III, decreased antithrombin III activity; increased levels of fibrinogen and fibrinogen activity; increased plasminogen antigen and activity.
  2. Increased thyroid binding globulin (TBG) levels leading to increased circulating total thyroid hormone levels, as measured by protein-bound iodine (PBI), T4 levels (by column or by radioimmunoassay) or T3 levels by radioimmunoassay. T3 resin uptake is decreased, reflecting the elevated TBG. Free T4 and free T3 concentrations are unaltered. Patients on thyroid replacement therapy may require higher doses of thyroid hormone.
  3. Other binding proteins may be elevated in serum (i.e., corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG), sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) leading to increased total circulating corticosteroids and sex steroids, respectively. Free hormone concentrations may be decreased. Other plasma proteins may be increased (angiotensinogen/renin substrate, alpha-l-antitrypsin, ceruloplasmin).
  4. Increased plasma HDL and HDL2 cholesterol subfraction concentrations, reduced LDL cholesterol concentration, increased triglyceride levels.
  5. Impaired glucose tolerance.
  6. Reduced response to metyrapone test.
Last reviewed on RxList: 6/6/2012
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

Source: http://www.rxlist.com

Divigel® (estradiol gel) 0.1% is indicated in the treatment of moderate to severe vasomotor symptoms associated with menopause.

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Estrogen products, including Divigel® (estradiol gel) 0.1%, should not be used in women with any of the following conditions:
  1. Undiagnosed abnormal genital bleeding.
  2. Known, suspected, or history of cancer of the breast.
  3. Known or suspected estrogen-dependent neoplasia.
  4. Active deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, or history of these conditions.
  5. Active or recent (e.g., within the past year) arterial thromboembolic disease (e.g., stroke, myocardial infarction).
  6. Liver dysfunction or disease.
  7. Known hypersensitivity to the ingredients of Divigel®.
  8. Known or suspected pregnancy. There is no indication for Divigel® in pregnancy. There appears to be little or no increased risk of birth defects in children born to women who have used estrogens and progestins from oral contraceptives inadvertently during early pregnancy. (See PRECAUTIONS.)
Last reviewed on RxList: 6/6/2012
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

Source: http://www.rxlist.com

Serious ill effects have not been reported following acute ingestion of large doses of estrogen-containing drug products by young children. Overdosage of estrogen may cause nausea and vomiting, and withdrawal bleeding may occur in females.

Source: http://www.rxlist.com

Divigel® (estradiol gel) 0.1% is a clear, colorless, smooth, opalescent gel supplied in single-dose foil packets of 0.25, 0.5, and 1.0 g, corresponding to 0.25, 0.5, and 1.0 mg estradiol, respectively. NDC 0245-0880-30, carton of 30 packets, 0.25 mg estradiol per single-dose foil packet NDC 0245-0881-30, carton of 30 packets, 0.5 mg estradiol per single-dose foil packet NDC 0245-0882-30, carton of 30 packets, 1.0 mg estradiol per single-dose foil packet Keep out of the reach of children. Store at 20 to 25°C (68 to 77°F). Excursions permitted to 15 to 30°C (59 to 86°F). [See USP Controlled Room Temperature.] Manufactured by: Orion Corporation Orion Pharma, Tengströminkatu 8, FI-20360 Turku, Finland. Distributed by: Upsher-Smith Laboratories, Inc., Minneapolis, MN 55447, 1-800-654-2299, Product of Finland. Revised June 2007 Last reviewed on RxList: 6/6/2012
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

Source: http://www.rxlist.com

General Addition of a progestin when a woman has not had a hysterectomy Studies of the addition of a progestin for 10 or more days of a cycle of estrogen administration, or daily with estrogen in a continuous regimen, have reported a lowered incidence of endometrial hyperplasia than would be induced by estrogen treatment alone. Endometrial hyperplasia may be a precursor to endometrial cancer. There are, however, possible risks that may be associated with the use of progestins with estrogens compared to estrogen-alone regimens. These include a possible increased risk of breast cancer, adverse effects on lipoprotein metabolism (e.g., lowering HDL, raising LDL), and impairment of glucose tolerance. Elevated blood pressure In a small number of case reports, substantial increases in blood pressure have been attributed to idiosyncratic reactions to estrogens. In a large, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial, a generalized effect of estrogens on blood pressure was not seen. Blood pressure should be monitored at regular intervals with estrogen use. Hypertriglyceridemia In patients with pre-existing hypertriglyceridemia, estrogen therapy may be associated with elevations of plasma triglycerides leading to pancreatitis and other complications. Impaired liver function and past history of cholestatic jaundice Estrogens may be poorly metabolized in patients with impaired liver function. For patients with a history of cholestatic jaundice associated with past estrogen use or with pregnancy, caution should be exercised, and in the case of recurrence, medication should be discontinued. Hypothyroidism Estrogen administration leads to increased thyroid-binding globulin (TBG) levels. Patients with normal thyroid function can compensate for the increased TBG by making more thyroid hormone, thus maintaining free T4 and T3 serum concentrations in the normal range. Patients dependent on thyroid hormone replacement therapy who are also receiving estrogens may require increased doses of their thyroid replacement therapy. These patients should have their thyroid function monitored to maintain their free thyroid hormone levels in an acceptable range. Fluid retention Estrogens may cause some degree of fluid retention. Because of this, patients who have conditions that might be influenced by this factor, such as a cardiac or renal dysfunction, warrant careful observation when estrogens are prescribed. Hypocalcemia Estrogens should be used with caution in individuals with severe hypocalcemia. Ovarian cancer The estrogen-plus-progestin substudy of the WHI reported that after an average follow-up of 5.6 years, the relative risk for ovarian cancer for estrogen-plus-progestin versus placebo was 1.58 (95% nCI, 0.77-3.24), but was not statistically significant. The absolute risk for estrogen-plus-progestin versus placebo was 4.2 versus 2.7 cases per 10,000 women-years. In some epidemiologic studies, the use of estrogen only products in particular for 10 or more years, has been associated with an increased risk of ovarian cancer. Other epidemiologic studies have not found these associations. Exacerbation of endometriosis Endometriosis may be exacerbated with administration of estrogens. Malignant transformation of residual endometrial implants have been reported in women treated posthysterectomy with estrogen-alone therapy. For patients known to have residual endometriosis post-hysterectomy, the addition of progestin should be considered. Exacerbation of other conditions Estrogens may cause an exacerbation of asthma, diabetes mellitus, epilepsy, migraine or porphyria, systemic lupus erythematosus, and hepatic hemangiomas and should be used with caution in women with these conditions. Photosensitivity/Photoallergy The effects of direct sun exposure to Divigel® application sites have not been evaluated in clinical trials. Nonclinical studies in guinea pigs showed no phototoxicity or photosensitivity. In addition, Divigel® has been shown to absorb light primarily at wavelengths below 290 nm. Therefore, Divigel® is not considered to have photosensitizing potential. Sunscreen application Studies conducted using other approved topical estrogen gel products have shown that sunscreens have the potential for changing the systemic exposure of topically applied estrogen gels. The effect of concomitant application of sunscreen and Divigel® to the same application site has not been clinically evaluated. Miscellaneous Alcohol based gels are flammable. Avoid fire, flame, or smoking until the gel has dried. Occlusion of the area where the topical drug product is applied with clothing or other barriers is not recommended until the gel is completely dried. Potential for Estradiol Transfer and Effects of Washing There is a potential for drug transfer from one individual to the other following physical contact of Divigel® application sites. In a study to evaluate transferability to males from their female contacts, there was some elevation of estradiol levels over baseline in the male subjects, however, the degree of transferability in this study was inconclusive. Patients are advised to avoid skin contact with other subjects until the gel is completely dried. The site of application should be covered (clothed) after drying. Washing the application site with soap and water 1 hour after application resulted in a 30 to 38% decrease in the mean total 24-hour exposure to estradiol. Therefore, patients should refrain from washing the application site for at least one hour after application. Information for Patients Physicians and pharmacists are advised to discuss the PATIENT INFORMATION leaflet with patients for whom they prescribe or dispense Divigel®. Laboratory Tests Estrogen administration should be initiated at the lowest dose approved for the treatment of moderate-to-severe vasomotor symptoms associated with menopause and then guided by clinical response rather than by serum hormone levels (e.g., estradiol, FSH). Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility See BOXED WARNINGS, WARNINGS and PRECAUTIONS. Long-term continuous administration of natural and synthetic estrogens in certain animal species increases the frequency of carcinomas of the breast, uterus, cervix, vagina, testis and liver. Pregnancy Estrogen products, including Divigel®, should not be used in pregnancy. (See CONTRAINDICATIONS.) Nursing Mothers Estrogen administration to nursing mothers has been shown to decrease the quantity and quality of the milk. Detectable amounts of estrogens have been identified in the milk of mothers receiving estrogen therapy. Caution should be exercised when estrogen products, including Divigel®, are administered to a nursing woman. Pediatric Use Safety and efficacy of Divigel® in pediatric patients has not been established. Geriatric Use There have not been sufficient numbers of geriatric patients involved in studies utilizing Divigel® to determine whether those over 65 years of age differ from younger subjects in their response to Divigel®. Of the total number of subjects in the estrogen-alone substudy of the Women's Health Initiative (WHI), 46% (n=4,943) were 65 years and older, while 7.1% (n=767) were 75 years and older. There was a higher relative risk (CE versus placebo) of stroke in women less than 75 years of age compared to women 75 years and older. In the estrogen-alone substudy of the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study (WHIMS), a substudy of WHI, a population of 2,947 hysterectomized women, aged 65 to 79 years, was randomized to CE (0.625 mg per day) or placebo. After an average follow-up of 5.2 years, the relative risk (CE versus placebo) of probable dementia was 1.49 (95% CI, 0.83-2.66). The absolute risk of developing probable dementia with estrogen alone was 37 vs. 25 cases per 10,000 women-years with placebo. Of the total number of subjects in the estrogen-plus-progestin substudy of the WHI, 44% (n=7,320) were 65 years and older, while 6.6% (n=1,095) were 75 years and older. There was a higher relative risk (CE/MPA versus placebo) of stroke and invasive breast cancer in women 75 and older compared to women less than 75 years of age. In women greater than 75, the increased risk of non-fatal stroke and invasive breast cancer observed in the estrogenplus- progestin combination group compared to the placebo group was 75 vs. 24 per 10,000 women-years and 52 vs. 12 per 10,000 women years, respectively. In the estrogen-plus-progestin substudy of WHIMS, a population of 4,532 postmenopausal women, aged 65 to 79 years, was randomized to CE/MPA (CE 0.625 mg/2.5 mg daily) or placebo. In the estrogen-plus-progestin group, after an average follow-up of 4 years, the relative risk (CE/MPA versus placebo) of probable dementia was 2.05 (95% CI, 1.21-3.48). The absolute risk of developing probable dementia with CE/MPA was 45 vs. 22 cases per 10,000 women-years with placebo. Seventy-nine percent of the cases of probable dementia occurred in women that were older than 70 for the CE group, and 82 percent of the cases of probable dementia occurred in women who were older than 70 in the CE/MPA group. The most common classification of probable dementia in both the treatment groups and placebo groups was Alzheimer's disease. When data from the two populations were pooled as planned in the WHIMS protocol, the reported overall risk of probable dementia was 1.76 (95% CI, 1.19-2.60). Since both substudies were conducted in women aged 65 to 79 years, it is unknown whether these findings apply to younger postmenopausal women. (See BOXED WARNINGS, and WARNINGS, Dementia.) Last reviewed on RxList: 6/6/2012
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

Source: http://www.rxlist.com

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