Drug: Cymbalta

CYMBALTA® (duloxetine delayed-release capsules) is a selective serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SSNRI) for oral administration. Its chemical designation is (+)-(S)-N-methyl-≈-(1-naphthyloxy)-2-thiophenepropylamine hydrochloride. The empirical formula is C18H19NOS•HCl, which corresponds to a molecular weight of 333.88. The structural formula is: Duloxetine hydrochloride is a white to slightly brownish white solid, which is slightly soluble in water. Each capsule contains enteric-coated pellets of 22.4, 33.7, or 67.3 mg of duloxetine hydrochloride equivalent to 20, 30, or 60 mg of duloxetine, respectively. These enteric-coated pellets are designed to prevent degradation of the drug in the acidic environment of the stomach. Inactive ingredients include FD&C Blue No. 2, gelatin, hypromellose, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose acetate succinate, sodium lauryl sulfate, sucrose, sugar spheres, talc, titanium dioxide, and triethyl citrate. The 20 and 60 mg capsules also contain iron oxide yellow.

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The following serious adverse reactions are described below and elsewhere in the labeling:
  • Suicidal Thoughts and Behaviors in Children, Adolescents and Young Adults [see BOXED WARNING and WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
  • Hepatotoxicity [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
  • Orthostatic Hypotension and Syncope [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
  • Serotonin Syndrome [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
  • Abnormal Bleeding [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
  • Severe Skin Reactions [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
  • Discontinuation of Treatment with CYMBALTA [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
  • Activation of Mania/Hypomania [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
  • Angle-Closure Glaucoma [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
  • Seizures [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
  • Effect on Blood Pressure [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
  • Clinically Important Drug Interactions [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
  • Hyponatremia [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
  • Urinary Hesitation and Retention [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
Clinical Trial Data Sources Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice. The stated frequencies of adverse reactions represent the proportion of individuals who experienced, at least once, a treatment-emergent adverse reaction of the type listed. A reaction was considered treatment-emergent if it occurred for the first time or worsened while receiving therapy following baseline evaluation. Reactions reported during the studies were not necessarily caused by the therapy, and the frequencies do not reflect investigator impression (assessment) of causality. Adults The data described below reflect exposure to CYMBALTA in placebo-controlled trials for MDD (N=2489), GAD (N=910), OA (N=239), CLBP (N=600), DPNP (N=906), and FM (N=876). The population studied was 17 to 91 years of age; 65.5%, 62.5%, 61.5%, 42.9%, and 94.9% female; and 86.5%, 81.2%, 86.2%, 74.0%, and 88% Caucasian for MDD, GAD, OA and CLBP, DPNP, and FM, respectively. Most patients received doses of a total of 60 to 120 mg per day [see Clinical Studies]. The data below do not include results of the trial examining the efficacy of CYMBALTA in patients ≥ 65 years old for the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder; however, the adverse reactions observed in this geriatric sample were generally similar to adverse reactions in the overall adult population. Children and Adolescents The data described below reflect exposure to CYMBALTA in pediatric, 10-week, placebo-controlled trials for MDD (N=341) and GAD (N=135). The population studied (N=476) was 7 to 17 years of age with 42.4% children age 7 to 11 years of age, 50.6% female, and 68.6% white. Patients received 30-120 mg per day during placebo-controlled acute treatment studies. Additional data come from the overall total of 822 pediatric patients (age 7 to 17 years of age) with 41.7% children age 7 to 11 years of age and 51.8% female exposed to CYMBALTA in MDD and GAD clinical trials up to 36-weeks in length, in which most patients received 30-120 mg per day. Adverse Reactions Reported As Reasons For Discontinuation Of Treatment in Adult Placebo-Controlled Trials Major Depressive Disorder Approximately 9% (209/2327) of the patients who received CYMBALTA in placebo-controlled trials for MDD discontinued treatment due to an adverse reaction, compared with 4.7% (68/1460) of the patients receiving placebo. Nausea (CYMBALTA 1.3%, placebo 0.5%) was the only common adverse reaction reported as a reason for discontinuation and considered to be drug-related (i.e., discontinuation occurring in at least 1% of the CYMBALTA-treated patients and at a rate of at least twice that of placebo). Generalized Anxiety Disorder Approximately 15.3% (102/668) of the patients who received CYMBALTA in placebo-controlled trials for GAD discontinued treatment due to an adverse reaction, compared with 4.0% (20/495) for placebo. Common adverse reactions reported as a reason for discontinuation and considered to be drug-related (as defined above) included nausea (CYMBALTA 3.7%, placebo 0.2%), and vomiting (CYMBALTA 1.3%, placebo 0.0%), and dizziness (CYMBALTA 1.0%, placebo 0.2%). Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathic Pain Approximately 12.9% (117/906) of the patients who received CYMBALTA in placebo-controlled trials for DPNP discontinued treatment due to an adverse reaction, compared with 5.1% (23/448) for placebo. Common adverse reactions reported as a reason for discontinuation and considered to be drug-related (as defined above) included nausea (CYMBALTA 3.5%, placebo 0.7%), dizziness (CYMBALTA 1.2%, placebo 0.4%), and somnolence (CYMBALTA 1.1%, placebo 0.0%). Fibromyalgia Approximately 19.6% (172/876) of the patients who received CYMBALTA in 3 to 6 month placebo-controlled trials for FM discontinued treatment due to an adverse reaction, compared with 11.8% (63/535) for placebo. Common adverse reactions reported as a reason for discontinuation and considered to be drug-related (as defined above) included nausea (CYMBALTA 1.9%, placebo 0.7%), somnolence (CYMBALTA 1.5%, placebo 0.0%), and fatigue (CYMBALTA 1.3%, placebo 0.2%). Chronic Pain due to Osteoarthritis Approximately 16.3% (39/239) of the patients who received CYMBALTA in 13-week, placebo-controlled trials for chronic pain due to OA discontinued treatment due to an adverse reaction, compared with 5.6% (14/248) for placebo. Common adverse reactions reported as a reason for discontinuation and considered to be drug-related (as defined above) included nausea (CYMBALTA 2.9%, placebo 0.8%) and asthenia (CYMBALTA 1.3%, placebo 0.0%). Chronic Low Back Pain Approximately 16.5% (99/600) of the patients who received CYMBALTA in 13-week, placebo-controlled trials for CLBP discontinued treatment due to an adverse reaction, compared with 6.3% (28/441) for placebo. Common adverse reactions reported as a reason for discontinuation and considered to be drug-related (as defined above) included nausea (CYMBALTA 3.0%, placebo 0.7%), and somnolence (CYMBALTA 1.0%, placebo 0.0%). Most Common Adult Adverse Reactions Pooled Trials for all Approved Indications The most commonly observed adverse reactions in CYMBALTA-treated patients (incidence of at least 5% and at least twice the incidence in placebo patients) were nausea, dry mouth, somnolence, constipation, decreased appetite, and hyperhidrosis. Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathic Pain The most commonly observed adverse reactions in CYMBALTA-treated patients (as defined above) were nausea, somnolence, decreased appetite, constipation, hyperhidrosis, and dry mouth. Fibromyalgia The most commonly observed adverse reactions in CYMBALTA-treated patients (as defined above) were nausea, dry mouth, constipation, somnolence, decreased appetite, hyperhidrosis, and agitation. Chronic Pain due to Osteoarthritis The most commonly observed adverse reactions in CYMBALTA-treated patients (as defined above) were nausea, fatigue, and constipation. Chronic Low Back Pain The most commonly observed adverse reactions in CYMBALTA-treated patients (as defined above) were nausea, dry mouth, insomnia, somnolence, constipation, dizziness, and fatigue. Adverse Reactions Occurring at An Incidence Of 5% Or More Among CYMBALTA-Treated Patients In Adult Placebo-Controlled Trials Table 2 gives the incidence of treatment-emergent adverse reactions in placebo-controlled trials for approved indications that occurred in 5% or more of patients treated with CYMBALTA and with an incidence greater than placebo. Table 2: Treatment-Emergent Adverse Reactions: Incidence of 5% or More in Placebo-Controlled Trials of Approved Indicationsa
Adverse Reaction Percentage of Patients Reporting Reaction CYMBALTA
(N=6020) Placebo
(N=3962) Nausea 24 8 Headache 14 13 Dry mouth 13 5 Fatigueb 10 5 Somnolencec,e 10 3 Insomniac,d 10 6 Dizziness 10 5 Constipationc 10 4 Diarrhea 9 6 Decreased appetitec,f 8 2 Hyperhidrosis 7 2 aThe inclusion of an event in the table is determined based on the percentages before rounding; however, the percentages displayed in the table are rounded to the nearest integer.
bAlso includes asthenia.
cEvents for which there was a significant dose-dependent relationship in fixed-dose studies, excluding three MDD studies which did not have a placebo lead-in period or dose titration.
dAlso includes middle insomnia, early morning awakening, and initial insomnia.
eAlso includes hypersomnia and sedation.
fAlso includes anorexia Adverse Reactions Occurring At An Incidence Of 2% Or More Among CYMBALTA-Treated Patients In Adult Placebo-Controlled Trials Pooled MDD and GAD Trials Table 3 gives the incidence of treatment-emergent adverse reactions in MDD and GAD placebo-controlled trials for approved indications that occurred in 2% or more of patients treated with CYMBALTA and with an incidence greater than placebo. Table 3: Treatment-Emergent Adverse Reactions: Incidence of 2% or More in MDD and GAD Placebo-Controlled Trialsa,b
System Organ Class / Adverse Reaction Percentage of Patients Reporting Reaction CYMBALTA
(N=2995) Placebo
(N=1955) Cardiac Disorders Palpitations 2 2 Eye Disorders Vision blurred 3 2 Gastrointestinal Disorders Nausea 25 9 Dry mouth 15 6 Diarrhea 10 7 Constipationc 10 4 Abdominal paind 4 4 Vomiting 5 2 General Disorders and Administration Site Conditions Fatiguee 10 6 Investigations Weight decreasedc 2 < 1 Metabolism and Nutrition Disorders Decreased appetitef 7 2 Nervous System Disorders Dizziness 10 6 Somnolenceg 10 4 Tremor 3 < 1 Psychiatric Disorders Insomniah 10 6 Agitationl 5 3 Anxiety 3 2 Libido decreasedj 4 1 Orgasm abnormalc,k 3 < 1 Abnormal dreamsl 2 1 Reproductive System and Breast Disorders Erectile dysfunctionm 4 1 Ejaculation delayedc,m 3 < 1 Ejaculation disorderm,n 2 < 1 Respiratory, Thoracic, and Mediastinal Disorders Yawning 2 < 1 Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Disorders Hyperhidrosis 6 2 Vascular Disorders Hot Flush 2 < 1 aThe inclusion of an event in the table is determined based on the percentages before rounding; however, the percentages displayed in the table are rounded to the nearest integer.
bFor GAD, there were no adverse events that were significantly different between treatments in adults ≥ 65 years that were also not significant in the adults < 65 years.
cEvents for which there was a significant dose-dependent relationship in fixed-dose studies, excluding three MDD studies which did not have a placebo lead-in period or dose titration.
dAlso includes abdominal pain upper, abdominal pain lower, abdominal tenderness, abdominal discomfort, and gastrointestinal pain
eAlso includes asthenia
fAlso includes anorexia
gAlso includes hypersomnia and sedation
hAlso includes middle insomnia, early morning awakening and initial insomnia
iAlso includes feeling jittery, nervousness, restlessness, tension and psychomotor agitation
jAlso includes loss of libido
kAlso includes anorgasmia
lAlso includes nightmare
mMale patients only
nAlso includes ejaculation failure and ejaculation dysfunction DPNP, FM, OA, and CLBP Table 4 gives the incidence of treatment-emergent adverse events that occurred in 2% or more of patients treated with CYMBALTA (determined prior to rounding) in the premarketing acute phase of DPNP, FM, OA, and CLBP placebo-controlled trials and with an incidence greater than placebo. Table 4: Treatment-Emergent Adverse Reactions: Incidence of 2% or More in DPNP, FM, OA, and CLBP Placebo-Controlled Trialsa
System Organ Class / Adverse Reaction Percentage of Patients Reporting Reaction CYMBALTA
(N=2621) Placebo
(N=1672) Gastrointestinal Disorders Nausea 23 7 Dry Mouthb 11 3 Constipationb 10 3 Diarrhea 9 6 Abdominal Painc 6 5 Vomiting 3 2 Dyspepsiad 2 1 General Disorders and Administration Site Conditions Fatiguee 11 5 Infections and Infestations Nasopharyngitis 5 4 Upper Respiratory Tract Infection 4 4 Influenza 3 2 Metabolism and Nutrition Disorders Decreased Appetiteb,f 9 1 Musculoskeletal and Connective Tissue Musculoskeletal Painb,g 4 4 Muscle Spasms 3 2 Nervous System Disorders Headache 13 9 Somnolenceb,h 12 3 Dizziness 10 5 Paraesthesial 2 2 Tremorb 2 < 1 Psychiatric Disorders Insomniab,j 10 6 Agitationk 3 < 1 Reproductive System and Breast Disorders Erectile Dysfunctionb,l 4 < 1 Ejaculation Disorderm 2 < 1 Respiratory, Thoracic, and Mediastinal Disorders Cough 3 2 Oropharyngeal Painb 2 2 Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Disorders Hyperhidrosis 6 1 Vascular Disorders Flushingn 3 1 aThe inclusion of an event in the table is determined based on the percentages before rounding; however, the percentages displayed in the table are rounded to the nearest integer.
bIncidence of 120 mg/day is significantly greater than the incidence for 60 mg/day.
cAlso includes abdominal discomfort, abdominal pain lower, abdominal pain upper, abdominal tenderness and gastrointestinal pain
dAlso includes stomach discomfort
eAlso includes asthenia
fAlso includes anorexia
gAlso includes myalgia and neck pain
hAlso includes hypersomnia and sedation
iAlso includes hypoaesthesia, hypoaesthesia facial and paraesthesia oral
jAlso includes middle insomnia, early morning awakening and initial insomnia
kAlso includes feeling jittery, nervousness, restlessness, tension and psychomotor hyperactivity
lMale patients only (N=885 for CYMBALTA, 494 for placebo)
mMale patients only (N=885 for CYMBALTA, 494 for placebo). Also includes ejaculation failure
nAlso includes hot flush Effects On Male And Female Sexual Function In Adults Changes in sexual desire, sexual performance and sexual satisfaction often occur as manifestations of psychiatric disorders or diabetes, but they may also be a consequence of pharmacologic treatment. Because adverse sexual reactions are presumed to be voluntarily underreported, the Arizona Sexual Experience Scale (ASEX), a validated measure designed to identify sexual side effects, was used prospectively in 4 MDD placebo-controlled trials. In these trials, as shown in Table 5 below, patients treated with CYMBALTA experienced significantly more sexual dysfunction, as measured by the total score on the ASEX, than did patients treated with placebo. Gender analysis showed that this difference occurred only in males. Males treated with CYMBALTA experienced more difficulty with ability to reach orgasm (ASEX Item 4) than males treated with placebo. Females did not experience more sexual dysfunction on CYMBALTA than on placebo as measured by ASEX total score. Negative numbers signify an improvement from a baseline level of dysfunction, which is commonly seen in depressed patients. Physicians should routinely inquire about possible sexual side effects. Table 5: Mean Change in ASEX Scores by Gender in MDD Placebo-Controlled Trials
  Male Patientsa Female Patientsa CYMBALTA
(n=175) Placebo
(n=83) Cymbalta
(n=241) Placebo
(n=126) ASEX Total (Items 1-5) 0.56b -1.07 -1.15 -1.07 Item 1 — Sex drive -0.07 -0.12 -0.32 -0.24 Item 2 — Arousal 0.01 -0.26 -0.21 -0.18 Item 3 — Ability to achieve erection (men); Lubrication (women) 0.03 -0.25 -0.17 -0.18 Item 4 — Ease of reaching orgasm 0.40c -0.24 -0.09 -0.13 Item 5 — Orgasm satisfaction 0.09 -0.13 -0.11 -0.17 an=Number of patients with non-missing change score for ASEX total
bp=0.013 versus placebo
cp < 0.001 versus placebo Vital Sign Changes In Adults In placebo-controlled clinical trials across approved indications for change from baseline to endpoint, CYMBALTA treatment was associated with mean increases of 0.07 mm Hg in systolic blood pressure and 0.62 mm Hg in diastolic blood pressure compared to mean decreases of 1.31 mm Hg systolic and 0.73 mm Hg diastolic in placebo-treated patients. There was no significant difference in the frequency of sustained (3 consecutive visits) elevated blood pressure [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]. CYMBALTA treatment, for up to 26 weeks in placebo-controlled trials across approved indications, typically caused a small increase in heart rate for change from baseline to endpoint compared to placebo of up to 1.40 beats per minute. Laboratory Changes In Adults CYMBALTA treatment in placebo-controlled clinical trials across approved indications, was associated with small mean increases from baseline to endpoint in ALT, AST, CPK, and alkaline phosphatase; Infrequent, modest, transient, abnormal values were observed for these analytes in CYMBALTA-treated patients when compared with placebo-treated patients [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]. Electrocardiogram Changes In Adults The effect of CYMBALTA 160 mg and 200 mg administered twice daily to steady state was evaluated in a randomized, double-blinded, two-way crossover study in 117 healthy female subjects. No QT interval prolongation was detected. CYMBALTA appears to be associated with concentration-dependent but not clinically meaningful QT shortening. Other Adverse Reactions Observed During The Premarketing And Postmarketing Clinical Trial Evaluation Of CYMBALTA In Adults Following is a list of treatment-emergent adverse reactions reported by patients treated with CYMBALTA in clinical trials. In clinical trials of all indications, 29,435 patients were treated with CYMBALTA. Of these, 30.4% (8953) took CYMBALTA for at least 6 months, and 14.7% (4317) for at least one year. The following listing is not intended to include reactions (1) already listed in previous tables or elsewhere in labeling, (2) for which a drug cause was remote, (3) which were so general as to be uninformative, (4) which were not considered to have significant clinical implications, or (5) which occurred at a rate equal to or less than placebo. Reactions are categorized by body system according to the following definitions: Frequent adverse reactions are those occurring in at least 1/100 patients; Infrequent adverse reactions are those occurring in 1/100 to 1/1000 patients; rare reactions are those occurring in fewer than 1/1000 patients. Cardiac Disorders — Frequent: palpitations; Infrequent: myocardial infarction and tachycardia. Ear and Labyrinth Disorders — Frequent: vertigo; Infrequent: ear pain and tinnitus. Endocrine Disorders — Infrequent: hypothyroidism. Eye Disorders — Frequent: vision blurred; Infrequent: diplopia, and visual disturbance. Gastrointestinal Disorders — Frequent: flatulence; Infrequent: eructation, gastritis, halitosis, and stomatitis; Rare: gastric ulcer, hematochezia, and melena. General Disorders and Administration Site Conditions — Frequent: chills/rigors; Infrequent: feeling abnormal, feeling hot and/or cold, malaise, and thirst; Rare: gait disturbance. Infections and Infestations — Infrequent: gastroenteritis and laryngitis. Investigations — Frequent: weight increased; Infrequent: blood cholesterol increased. Metabolism and Nutrition Disorders — Infrequent: dehydration and hyperlipidemia; Rare: dyslipidemia. Musculoskeletal and Connective Tissue Disorders — Frequent: musculoskeletal pain; Infrequent: muscle tightness and muscle twitching. Nervous System Disorders — Frequent: dysgeusia, lethargy, and paresthesia/hypoesthesia; Infrequent: disturbance in attention, dyskinesia, myoclonus, and poor quality sleep; Rare: dysarthria. Psychiatric Disorders — Frequent: abnormal dreams and sleep disorder; Infrequent: apathy, bruxism, disorientation/confusional state, irritability, mood swings, and suicide attempt; Rare: completed suicide. Renal and Urinary Disorders — Infrequent: dysuria, micturition urgency, nocturia, polyuria, and urine odor abnormal. Reproductive System and Breast Disorders — Frequent: anorgasmia/orgasm abnormal; Infrequent: menopausal symptoms, and sexual dysfunction. Respiratory, Thoracic and Mediastinal Disorders — Frequent: yawning; Infrequent: throat tightness. Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Disorders — Infrequent: cold sweat, dermatitis contact, erythema, increased tendency to bruise, night sweats, and photosensitivity reaction; Rare: ecchymosis. Vascular Disorders — Frequent: hot flush; Infrequent: flushing, orthostatic hypotension, and peripheral coldness. Adverse Reactions Observed In Children And Adolescent Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trials The adverse drug reaction profile observed in pediatric clinical trials (children and adolescents) was consistent with the adverse drug reaction profile observed in adult clinical trials. The specific adverse drug reactions observed in adult patients can be expected to be observed in pediatric patients (children and adolescents) [see ADVERSE REACTIONS]. The most common ( ≥ 5% and twice placebo) adverse reactions observed in pediatric clinical trials include: nausea, diarrhea, decreased weight, and dizziness. Table 6 provides the incidence of treatment-emergent adverse reactions in MDD and GAD pediatric placebo-controlled trials that occurred in greater than 2% of patients treated with CYMBALTA and with an incidence greater than placebo. Table 6: Treatment-Emergent Adverse Reactions: Incidence of 2% or More and Greater than Placebo in three 10¬≠week Pediatric Placebo-Controlled Trialsa
System Organ Class/Adverse Reaction Percentage of Pediatric Patients Reporting Reaction CYMBALTA
(N=476) Placebo
(N=362) Gastrointestinal Disorders Nausea 18 8 Abdominal Painb 13 10 Vomiting 9 4 Diarrhea 6 3 Dry Mouth 2 1 General Disorders and Administration Site Conditions Fatiguec 7 5 Investigations Decreased Weightd 14 6 Metabolism and Nutrition Disorders Decreased Appetite 10 5 Nervous System Disorders Headache 18 13 Somnolencee 11 6 Dizziness 8 4 Psychiatric Disorders Insomniaf 7 4 Respiratory, Thoracic, and Mediastinal Disorders Oropharyngeal Pain 4 2 Cough 3 1 aThe inclusion of an event in the table is determined based on the percentages before rounding; however, the percentages displayed in the table are rounded to the nearest integer.
bAlso includes abdominal pain upper, abdominal pain lower, abdominal tenderness, abdominal discomfort, and gastrointestinal pain.
cAlso includes asthenia.
dFrequency based on weight measurement meeting potentially clinically significant threshold of ≥ 3.5% weight loss (N=467 CYMBALTA; N=354 Placebo).
eAlso includes hypersomnia and sedation.
fAlso includes initial insomnia, insomnia, middle insomnia, and terminal insomnia. Other adverse reactions that occurred at an incidence of less than 2% but were reported by more CYMBALTA treated patients than placebo treated patients and are associated CYMBALTA treatment: abnormal dreams (including nightmare), anxiety, flushing (including hot flush), hyperhidrosis, palpitations, pulse increased, and tremor. Discontinuation-emergent symptoms have been reported when stopping CYMBALTA. The most commonly reported symptoms following discontinuation of CYMBALTA in pediatric clinical trials have included headache, dizziness, insomnia, and abdominal pain [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS and ADVERSE REACTIONS]. Growth (Height and Weight) Decreased appetite and weight loss have been observed in association with the use of SSRIs and SNRIs. Pediatric patients treated with CYMBALTA in clinical trials experienced a 0.1kg mean decrease in weight at 10 weeks, compared with a mean weight gain of approximately 0.9 kg in placebo-treated patients. The proportion of patients who experienced a clinically significant decrease in weight ( ≥ 3.5%) was greater in the CYMBALTA group than in the placebo group (14% and 6%, respectively). Subsequently, over the 4- to 6-month uncontrolled extension periods, CYMBALTA-treated patients on average trended toward recovery to their expected baseline weight percentile based on population data from age- and sex-matched peers. In studies up to 9 months, CYMBALTA-treated pediatric patients experienced an increase in height of 1.7 cm on average (2.2 cm increase in children [7 to 11 years of age] and 1.3 cm increase in adolescents [12 to 17 years of age]). While height increase was observed during these studies, a mean decrease of 1% in height percentile was observed (decrease of 2% in children [7 to 11 years of age] and increase of 0.3% in adolescents [12 to 17 years of age]). Weight and height should be monitored regularly in children and adolescents treated with CYMBALTA. Postmarketing Spontaneous Reports The following adverse reactions have been identified during postapproval use of CYMBALTA. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure. Adverse reactions reported since market introduction that were temporally related to CYMBALTA therapy and not mentioned elsewhere in labeling include: anaphylactic reaction, aggression and anger (particularly early in treatment or after treatment discontinuation), angioneurotic edema, angle-closure glaucoma, extrapyramidal disorder, galactorrhea, gynecological bleeding, hallucinations, hyperglycemia, hyperprolactinemia, hypersensitivity, hypertensive crisis, muscle spasm, rash, restless legs syndrome, seizures upon treatment discontinuation, supraventricular arrhythmia, tinnitus (upon treatment discontinuation), trismus, and urticaria. Read the Cymbalta (duloxetine hcl) Side Effects Center for a complete guide to possible side effectsLearn More »

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Swallow CYMBALTA whole. Do not chew or crush. Do not open the capsule and sprinkle its contents on food or mix with liquids. All of these might affect the enteric coating. CYMBALTA can be given without regard to meals. If a dose of CYMBALTA is missed, take the missed dose as soon as it is remembered. If it is almost time for the next dose, skip the missed dose and take the next dose at the regular time. Do not take two doses of CYMBALTA at the same time. Dosage For Treatment Of Major Depressive Disorder Administer CYMBALTA at a total dose of 40 mg/day (given as 20 mg twice daily) to 60 mg/day (given either once daily or as 30 mg twice daily). For some patients, it may be desirable to start at 30 mg once daily for 1 week, to allow patients to adjust to the medication before increasing to 60 mg once daily. While a 120 mg/day dose was shown to be effective, there is no evidence that doses greater than 60 mg/day confer any additional benefits. The safety of doses above 120 mg/day has not been adequately evaluated. Periodically reassess to determine the need for maintenance treatment and the appropriate dose for such treatment [see Clinical Studies]. Dosage For Treatment Of Generalized Anxiety Disorder Adults For most patients, initiate CYMBALTA 60 mg once daily. For some patients, it may be desirable to start at 30 mg once daily for 1 week, to allow patients to adjust to the medication before increasing to 60 mg once daily. While a 120 mg once daily dose was shown to be effective, there is no evidence that doses greater than 60 mg/day confer additional benefit. Nevertheless, if a decision is made to increase the dose beyond 60 mg once daily, increase dose in increments of 30 mg once daily. The safety of doses above 120 mg once daily has not been adequately evaluated. Periodically reassess to determine the continued need for maintenance treatment and the appropriate dose for such treatment [see Clinical Studies]. Elderly Initiate CYMBALTA at a dose of 30 mg once daily for 2 weeks before considering an increase to the target dose of 60 mg. Thereafter, patients may benefit from doses above 60 mg once daily. If a decision is made to increase the dose beyond 60 mg once daily, increase dose in increments of 30 mg once daily. The maximum dose studied was 120 mg per day. Safety of doses above 120 mg once daily has not been adequately evaluated [see Clinical Studies]. Children and Adolescents (7 to 17 years of age) Initiate CYMBALTA at a dose of 30 mg once daily for 2 weeks before considering an increase to 60 mg. The recommended dose range is 30 to 60 mg once daily. Some patients may benefit from doses above 60 mg once daily. If a decision is made to increase the dose beyond 60 mg once daily, increase dose in increments of 30 mg once daily. The maximum dose studied was 120 mg per day. The safety of doses above 120 mg once daily has not been evaluated [see Clinical Studies]. Dosage For Treatment Of Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathic Pain Administer CYMBALTA 60 mg once daily. There is no evidence that doses higher than 60 mg confer additional significant benefit and the higher dose is clearly less well tolerated [see Clinical Studies]. For patients for whom tolerability is a concern, a lower starting dose may be considered. Since diabetes is Frequently complicated by renal disease, consider a lower starting dose and gradual increase in dose for patients with renal impairment [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION, Use in Specific Populations, and CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY]. Dosage For Treatment Of Fibromyalgia Administer CYMBALTA 60 mg once daily. Begin treatment at 30 mg once daily for 1 week, to allow patients to adjust to the medication before increasing to 60 mg once daily. Some patients may respond to the starting dose. There is no evidence that doses greater than 60 mg/day confer additional benefit, even in patients who do not respond to a 60 mg dose, and higher doses are associated with a higher rate of adverse reactions [see Clinical Studies]. Dosage For Treatment Of Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain Administer CYMBALTA 60 mg once daily. Begin treatment at 30 mg for one week, to allow patients to adjust to the medication before increasing to 60 mg once daily. There is no evidence that higher doses confer additional benefit, even in patients who do not respond to a 60 mg dose, and higher doses are associated with a higher rate of adverse reactions [see Clinical Studies]. Dosing In Special Populations Hepatic Impairment Avoid use in patients with chronic liver disease or cirrhosis [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS and Use in Specific Populations]. Severe Renal Impairment Avoid use in patients with severe renal impairment, GFR < 30 mL/min [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS and Use in Specific Populations]. Discontinuing CYMBALTA Adverse reactions after discontinuation of CYMBALTA, after abrupt or tapered discontinuation, include: dizziness, headache, nausea, diarrhea, paresthesia, irritability, vomiting, insomnia, anxiety, hyperhidrosis, and fatigue. A gradual reduction in dosage rather than abrupt cessation is recommended whenever possible [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]. Switching A Patient To Or From A Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitor (MAOI) Intended To Treat Psychiatric Disorders At least 14 days should elapse between discontinuation of an MAOI intended to treat psychiatric disorders and initiation of therapy with CYMBALTA. Conversely, at least 5 days should be allowed after stopping CYMBALTA before starting an MAOI intended to treat psychiatric disorders [see CONTRAINDICATIONS]. Use Of CYMBALTA With Other MAOIs Such As Linezolid Or Methylene Blue Do not start CYMBALTA in a patient who is being treated with linezolid or intravenous methylene blue because there is an increased risk of serotonin syndrome. In a patient who requires more urgent treatment of a psychiatric condition, other interventions, including hospitalization, should be considered [see CONTRAINDICATIONS]. In some cases, a patient already receiving CYMBALTA therapy may require urgent treatment with linezolid or intravenous methylene blue. If acceptable alternatives to linezolid or intravenous methylene blue treatment are not available and the potential benefits of linezolid or intravenous methylene blue treatment are judged to outweigh the risks of serotonin syndrome in a particular patient, CYMBALTA should be stopped promptly, and linezolid or intravenous methylene blue can be administered. The patient should be monitored for symptoms of serotonin syndrome for 5 days or until 24 hours after the last dose of linezolid or intravenous methylene blue, whichever comes first. Therapy with CYMBALTA may be resumed 24 hours after the last dose of linezolid or intravenous methylene blue [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]. The risk of administering methylene blue by non-intravenous routes (such as oral tablets or by local injection) or in intravenous doses much lower than 1 mg/kg with CYMBALTA is unclear. The clinician should, nevertheless, be aware of the possibility of emergent symptoms of serotonin syndrome with such use [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].

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Both CYP1A2 and CYP2D6 are responsible for duloxetine metabolism. Inhibitors Of CYP1A2 When duloxetine 60 mg was co-administered with fluvoxamine 100 mg, a potent CYP1A2 inhibitor, to male subjects (n=14) duloxetine AUC was increased approximately 6-fold, the Cmax was increased about 2.5-fold, and duloxetine t1/2 was increased approximately 3-fold. Other drugs that inhibit CYP1A2 metabolism include cimetidine and quinolone antimicrobials such as ciprofloxacin and enoxacin [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]. Inhibitors Of CYP2D6 Concomitant use of duloxetine (40 mg once daily) with paroxetine (20 mg once daily) increased the concentration of duloxetine AUC by about 60%, and greater degrees of inhibition are expected with higher doses of paroxetine. Similar effects would be expected with other potent CYP2D6 inhibitors (e.g., fluoxetine, quinidine) [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]. Dual Inhibition Of CYP1A2 And CYP2D6 Concomitant administration of duloxetine 40 mg twice daily with fluvoxamine 100 mg, a potent CYP1A2 inhibitor, to CYP2D6 poor metabolizer subjects (n=14) resulted in a 6-fold increase in duloxetine AUC and Cmax. Drugs That Interfere With Hemostasis (e.g., NSAIDs, Aspirin, and Warfarin) Serotonin release by platelets plays an important role in hemostasis. Epidemiological studies of the case-control and cohort design that have demonstrated an association between use of psychotropic drugs that interfere with serotonin reuptake and the occurrence of upper gastrointestinal bleeding have also shown that concurrent use of an NSAID or aspirin may potentiate this risk of bleeding. Altered anticoagulant effects, including increased bleeding, have been reported when SSRIs or SNRIs are co-administered with warfarin. Concomitant administration of warfarin (2-9 mg once daily) under steady state conditions with duloxetine 60 or 120 mg once daily for up to 14 days in healthy subjects (n=15) did not significantly change INR from baseline (mean INR changes ranged from 0.05 to +0.07). The total warfarin (protein bound plus free drug) pharmacokinetics (AUCτ,ss, Cmax,ss or tmax,ss) for both R- and S-warfarin were not altered by duloxetine. Because of the potential effect of duloxetine on platelets, patients receiving warfarin therapy should be carefully monitored when duloxetine is initiated or discontinued [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]. Lorazepam Under steady-state conditions for duloxetine (60 mg Q 12 hours) and lorazepam (2 mg Q 12 hours), the pharmacokinetics of duloxetine were not affected by co-administration. Temazepam Under steady-state conditions for duloxetine (20 mg qhs) and temazepam (30 mg qhs), the pharmacokinetics of duloxetine were not affected by co-administration. Drugs That Affect Gastric Acidity CYMBALTA has an enteric coating that resists dissolution until reaching a segment of the gastrointestinal tract where the pH exceeds 5.5. In extremely acidic conditions, CYMBALTA, unprotected by the enteric coating, may undergo hydrolysis to form naphthol. Caution is advised in using CYMBALTA in patients with conditions that may slow gastric emptying (e.g., some diabetics). Drugs that raise the gastrointestinal pH may lead to an earlier release of duloxetine. However, co-administration of CYMBALTA with aluminum- and magnesium-containing antacids (51 mEq) or CYMBALTA with famotidine, had no significant effect on the rate or extent of duloxetine absorption after administration of a 40 mg oral dose. It is unknown whether the concomitant administration of proton pump inhibitors affects duloxetine absorption [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]. Drugs Metabolized By CYP1A2 In vitro drug interaction studies demonstrate that duloxetine does not induce CYP1A2 activity. Therefore, an increase in the metabolism of CYP1A2 substrates (e.g., theophylline, caffeine) resulting from induction is not anticipated, although clinical studies of induction have not been performed. Duloxetine is an inhibitor of the CYP1A2 isoform in in vitro studies, and in two clinical studies the average (90% confidence interval) increase in theophylline AUC was 7% (1%-15%) and 20% (13%-27%) when co-administered with duloxetine (60 mg twice daily). Drugs Metabolized By CYP2D6 Duloxetine is a moderate inhibitor of CYP2D6. When duloxetine was administered (at a dose of 60 mg twice daily) in conjunction with a single 50 mg dose of desipramine, a CYP2D6 substrate, the AUC of desipramine increased 3-fold [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]. Drugs Metabolized By CYP2C9 Results of in vitro studies demonstrate that duloxetine does not inhibit activity. In a clinical study, the pharmacokinetics of S-warfarin, a CYP2C9 substrate, were not significantly affected by duloxetine [see DRUG INTERACTIONS]. Drugs Metabolized By CYP3A Results of in vitro studies demonstrate that duloxetine does not inhibit or induce CYP3A activity. Therefore, an increase or decrease in the metabolism of CYP3A substrates (e.g., oral contraceptives and other steroidal agents) resulting from induction or inhibition is not anticipated, although clinical studies have not been performed. Drugs Metabolized By CYP2C19 Results of in vitro studies demonstrate that duloxetine does not inhibit CYP2C19 activity at therapeutic concentrations. Inhibition of the metabolism of CYP2C19 substrates is therefore not anticipated, although clinical studies have not been performed. Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (MAOIs) [See DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION, CONTRAINDICATIONS, and WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]. Serotonergic Drugs [See DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION, CONTRAINDICATIONS, and WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]. Alcohol When CYMBALTA and ethanol were administered several hours apart so that peak concentrations of each would coincide, CYMBALTA did not increase the impairment of mental and motor skills caused by alcohol. In the CYMBALTA clinical trials database, three CYMBALTA-treated patients had liver injury as manifested by ALT and total bilirubin elevations, with evidence of obstruction. Substantial intercurrent ethanol use was present in each of these cases, and this may have contributed to the abnormalities seen [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]. CNS Drugs [See WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]. Drugs Highly Bound To Plasma Protein Because duloxetine is highly bound to plasma protein, administration of CYMBALTA to a patient taking another drug that is highly protein bound may cause increased free concentrations of the other drug, potentially resulting in adverse reactions. However, co-administration of duloxetine (60 or 120 mg) with warfarin (2-9 mg), a highly protein-bound drug, did not result in significant changes in INR and in the pharmacokinetics of either total S-or total R-warfarin (protein bound plus free drug) [see DRUG INTERACTIONS]. Drug Abuse And Dependence Abuse In animal studies, duloxetine did not demonstrate barbiturate-like (depressant) abuse potential. While CYMBALTA has not been systematically studied in humans for its potential for abuse, there was no indication of drug-seeking behavior in the clinical trials. However, it is not possible to predict on the basis of premarketing experience the extent to which a CNS active drug will be misused, diverted, and/or abused once marketed. Consequently, physicians should carefully evaluate patients for a history of drug abuse and follow such patients closely, observing them for signs of misuse or abuse of CYMBALTA (e.g., development of tolerance, incrementation of dose, drug-seeking behavior). Dependence In drug dependence studies, duloxetine did not demonstrate dependence-producing potential in rats. Read the Cymbalta Drug Interactions Center for a complete guide to possible interactions Learn More »

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CYMBALTA® is indicated for the treatment of:
  • Major Depressive Disorder [see Clinical Studies]
  • Generalized Anxiety Disorder [see Clinical Studies]
  • Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy [see Clinical Studies]
  • Fibromyalgia [see Clinical Studies]
  • Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain [see Clinical Studies]

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Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (MAOIs) The use of MAOIs intended to treat psychiatric disorders with CYMBALTA or within 5 days of stopping treatment with CYMBALTA is contraindicated because of an increased risk of serotonin syndrome. The use of CYMBALTA within 14 days of stopping an MAOI intended to treat psychiatric disorders is also contraindicated [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION and WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]. Starting CYMBALTA in a patient who is being treated with MAOIs such as linezolid or intravenous methylene blue is also contraindicated because of an increased risk of serotonin syndrome [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION and WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]. Last reviewed on RxList: 10/31/2014
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

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Signs And Symptoms In postmarketing experience, fatal outcomes have been reported for acute overdoses, primarily with mixed overdoses, but also with duloxetine only, at doses as low as 1000 mg. Signs and symptoms of overdose (duloxetine alone or with mixed drugs) included somnolence, coma, serotonin syndrome, seizures, syncope, tachycardia, hypotension, hypertension, and vomiting. Management Of Overdose There is no specific antidote to CYMBALTA, but if serotonin syndrome ensues, specific treatment (such as with cyproheptadine and/or temperature control) may be considered. In case of acute overdose, treatment should consist of those general measures employed in the management of overdose with any drug. An adequate airway, oxygenation, and ventilation should be assured, and cardiac rhythm and vital signs should be monitored. Induction of emesis is not recommended. Gastric lavage with a large-bore orogastric tube with appropriate airway protection, if needed, may be indicated if performed soon after ingestion or in symptomatic patients. Activated charcoal may be useful in limiting absorption of duloxetine from the gastrointestinal tract. Administration of activated charcoal has been shown to decrease AUC and Cmax by an average of one-third, although some subjects had a limited effect of activated charcoal. Due to the large volume of distribution of this drug, forced diuresis, dialysis, hemoperfusion, and exchange transfusion are unlikely to be beneficial. In managing overdose, the possibility of multiple drug involvement should be considered. A specific caution involves patients who are taking or have recently taken CYMBALTA and might ingest excessive quantities of a TCA. In such a case, decreased clearance of the parent tricyclic and/or its active metabolite may increase the possibility of clinically significant sequelae and extend the time needed for close medical observation [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS and DRUG INTERACTIONS]. The physician should consider contacting a poison control center (1-800-222-1222 or www.poison.org) for additional information on the treatment of any overdose. Telephone numbers for certified poison control centers are listed in the Physicians' Desk Reference (PDR).

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Dosage Forms And Strengths CYMBALTA is available as delayed release capsules: 20 mg opaque green capsules imprinted with “Lilly 3235 20mg” 30 mg opaque white and blue capsules imprinted with “Lilly 3240 30mg” 60 mg opaque green and blue capsules imprinted with “Lilly 3270 60mg” CYMBALTA is available as delayed release capsules in the following strengths, colors, imprints, and presentations: Features Strengths 20 mga 30 mga 60 mga Body color Opaque green Opaque white Opaque green Cap color Opaque green Opaque blue Opaque blue Cap imprint Lilly 3235 Lilly 3240 Lilly 3270 Body imprint 20mg 30mg 60mg Capsule number PU3235 PU3240 PU3270 Presentations and NDC Codes Bottles of 30 NA 0002-3240-30 0002-3270-30 Bottles of 60 0002-3235-60 NA NA Bottles of 90 NA 0002-3240-90 NA Bottles of 1000 NA 0002-3240-04 0002-3270-04 Blisters ID†100 NA 0002-3240-33 0002-3270-33 aequivalent to duloxetine base
† Identi-Dose® (unit dose medication, Lilly) Storage And Handling Store at 25°C (77°F); excursions permitted to 15-30°C (59-86°F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature]. Marketed by: Lilly USA, LLC, Indianapolis, IN 46285, USA. Literature revised October 2014 Last reviewed on RxList: 10/31/2014
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

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Suicidal Thoughts And Behaviors In Children, Adolescents, And Young Adults Patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), both adult and pediatric, may experience worsening of their depression and/or the emergence of suicidal ideation and behavior (suicidality) or unusual changes in behavior, whether or not they are taking antidepressant medications, and this risk may persist until significant remission occurs. Suicide is a known risk of depression and certain other psychiatric disorders, and these disorders themselves are the strongest predictors of suicide. There has been a long-standing concern, however, that antidepressants may have a role in inducing worsening of depression and the emergence of suicidality in certain patients during the early phases of treatment. Pooled analyses of short-term placebo-controlled trials of antidepressant drugs (SSRIs and others) showed that these drugs increase the risk of suicidal thinking and behavior (suicidality) in children, adolescents, and young adults (ages 18-24) with major depressive disorder (MDD) and other psychiatric disorders. Short-term studies did not show an increase in the risk of suicidality with antidepressants compared to placebo in adults beyond age 24; there was a reduction with antidepressants compared to placebo in adults aged 65 and older. The pooled analyses of placebo-controlled trials in children and adolescents with MDD, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), or other psychiatric disorders included a total of 24 short-term trials of 9 antidepressant drugs in over 4400 patients. The pooled analyses of placebo-controlled trials in adults with MDD or other psychiatric disorders included a total of 295 short-term trials (median duration of 2 months) of 11 antidepressant drugs in over 77,000 patients. There was considerable variation in risk of suicidality among drugs, but a tendency toward an increase in the younger patients for almost all drugs studied. There were differences in absolute risk of suicidality across the different indications, with the highest incidence in MDD. The risk of differences (drug vs placebo), however, were relatively stable within age strata and across indications. These risk differences (drug-placebo difference in the number of cases of suicidality per 1000 patients treated) are provided in Table 1. Table 1
Age Range Drug-Placebo Difference in Number of Cases of Suicidality per 1000 Patients Treated   Increases Compared to Placebo < 18 14 additional cases 18-24 5 additional cases   Decreases Compared to Placebo 25-64 1 fewer case ≥ 65 6 fewer cases No suicides occurred in any of the pediatric trials. There were suicides in the adult trials, but the number was not sufficient to reach any conclusion about drug effect on suicide. It is unknown whether the suicidality risk extends to longer-term use, i.e., beyond several months. However, there is substantial evidence from placebo-controlled maintenance trials in adults with depression that the use of antidepressants can delay the recurrence of depression. All patients being treated with antidepressants for any indication should be monitored appropriately and observed closely for clinical worsening, suicidality, and unusual changes in behavior, especially during the initial few months of a course of drug therapy, or at times of dose changes, either increases or decreases. The following symptoms, anxiety, agitation, panic attacks, insomnia, irritability, hostility, aggressiveness, impulsivity, akathisia (psychomotor restlessness), hypomania, and mania, have been reported in adult and pediatric patients being treated with antidepressants for major depressive disorder as well as for other indications, both psychiatric and nonpsychiatric. Although a causal link between the emergence of such symptoms and either the worsening of depression and/or the emergence of suicidal impulses has not been established, there is concern that such symptoms may represent precursors to emerging suicidality. Consideration should be given to changing the therapeutic regimen, including possibly discontinuing the medication, in patients whose depression is persistently worse, or who are experiencing emergent suicidality or symptoms that might be precursors to worsening depression or suicidality, especially if these symptoms are severe, abrupt in onset, or were not part of the patient's presenting symptoms. If the decision has been made to discontinue treatment, medication should be tapered, as rapidly as is feasible, but with recognition that discontinuation can be associated with certain symptoms [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION and WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS for descriptions of the risks of discontinuation of CYMBALTA]. Families and caregivers of patients being treated with antidepressants for major depressive disorder or other indications, both psychiatric and nonpsychiatric, should be alerted about the need to monitor patients for the emergence of agitation, irritability, unusual changes in behavior, and the other symptoms described above, as well as the emergence of suicidality, and to report such symptoms immediately to health care providers. Such monitoring should include daily observation by families and caregivers. Prescriptions for CYMBALTA should bewritten for the smallest quantity of capsules consistent with good patient management, in order to reduce the risk of overdose. Screening Patients for Bipolar Disorder A major depressive episode may be the initial presentation of bipolar disorder. It is generally believed (though not established in controlled trials) that treating such an episode with an antidepressant alone may increase the likelihood of precipitation of a mixed/manic episode in patients at risk for bipolar disorder. Whether any of the symptoms described above represent such a conversion is unknown. However, prior to initiating treatment with an antidepressant, patients with depressive symptoms should be adequately screened to determine if they are at risk for bipolar disorder; such screening should include a detailed psychiatric history, including a family history of suicide, bipolar disorder, and depression. It should be noted that CYMBALTA is not approved for use in treating bipolar depression. Hepatotoxicity There have been reports of hepatic failure, sometimes fatal, in patients treated with CYMBALTA. These cases have presented as hepatitis with abdominal pain, hepatomegaly, and elevation of transaminase levels to more than twenty times the upper limit of normal with or without jaundice, reflecting a mixed or hepatocellular pattern of liver injury. CYMBALTA should be discontinued in patients who develop jaundice or other evidence of clinically significant liver dysfunction and should not be resumed unless another cause can be established. Cases of cholestatic jaundice with minimal elevation of transaminase levels have also been reported. Other postmarketing reports indicate that elevated transaminases, bilirubin, and alkaline phosphatase have occurred in patients with chronic liver disease or cirrhosis. CYMBALTA increased the risk of elevation of serum transaminase levels in development program clinical trials. Liver transaminase elevations resulted in the discontinuation of 0.3% (89/29,435) of CYMBALTA-treated patients. In most patients, the median time to detection of the transaminase elevation was about two months. In adult placebo-controlled trials in any indication, for patients with normal and abnormal baseline ALT values, elevation of ALT > 3 times the upper limit of normal occurred in 1.37% (132/9611) of CYMBALTA-treated patients compared to 0.49% (35/7182) of placebo-treated patients. In adult placebo-controlled studies using a fixed dose design, there was evidence of a dose response relationship for ALT and AST elevation of > 3 times the upper limit of normal and > 5 times the upper limit of normal, respectively. Because it is possible that CYMBALTA and alcohol may interact to cause liver injury or that CYMBALTA may aggravate pre-existing liver disease, CYMBALTA should not be prescribed to patients with substantial alcohol use or evidence of chronic liver disease. Orthostatic Hypotension And Syncope Orthostatic hypotension and syncope have been reported with therapeutic doses of CYMBALTA. Syncope and orthostatic hypotension tend to occur within the first week of therapy but can occur at any time during CYMBALTA treatment, particularly after dose increases. The risk of blood pressure decreases may be greater in patients taking concomitant medications that induce orthostatic hypotension (such as antihypertensives) or are potent CYP1A2 inhibitors [see DRUG INTERACTIONS] and in patients taking CYMBALTA at doses above 60 mg daily. Consideration should be given to discontinuing CYMBALTA in patients who experience symptomatic orthostatic hypotension and/or syncope during CYMBALTA therapy. Serotonin Syndrome The development of a potentially life-threatening serotonin syndrome has been reported with SNRIs and SSRIs, including CYMBALTA, alone but particularly with concomitant use of other serotonergic drugs (including triptans, tricyclic antidepressants, fentanyl, lithium, tramadol, tryptophan, buspirone, and St. John's Wort) and with drugs that impair metabolism of serotonin (in particular, MAOIs, both those intended to treat psychiatric disorders and also others, such as linezolid and intravenous methylene blue). Serotonin syndrome symptoms may include mental status changes (e.g., agitation, hallucinations, delirium, and coma), autonomic instability (e.g., tachycardia, labile blood pressure, dizziness, diaphoresis, flushing, hyperthermia), neuromuscular symptoms (e.g., tremor, rigidity, myoclonus, hyperreflexia, incoordination), seizures, and/or gastrointestinal symptoms (e.g., nausea, vomiting, diarrhea). Patients should be monitored for the emergence of serotonin syndrome. The concomitant use of CYMBALTA with MAOIs intended to treat psychiatric disorders is contraindicated. CYMBALTA should also not be started in a patient who is being treated with MAOIs such as linezolid or intravenous methylene blue. All reports with methylene blue that provided information on the route of administration involved intravenous administration in the dose range of 1 mg/kg to 8 mg/kg. No reports involved the administration of methylene blue by other routes (such as oral tablets or local tissue injection) or at lower doses. There may be circumstances when it is necessary to initiate treatment with an MAOI such as linezolid or intravenous methylene blue in a patient taking CYMBALTA. CYMBALTA should be discontinued before initiating treatment with the MAOI [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION, and CONTRAINDICATIONS]. If concomitant use of CYMBALTA with other serotonergic drugs including triptans, tricyclic antidepressants, fentanyl, lithium, tramadol, buspirone, tryptophan and St. John's Wort is clinically warranted, patients should be made aware of a potential increased risk for serotonin syndrome, particularly during treatment initiation and dose increases. Treatment with CYMBALTA and any concomitant serotonergic agents, should be discontinued immediately if the above events occur and supportive symptomatic treatment should be initiated. Abnormal Bleeding SSRIs and SNRIs, including CYMBALTA, may increase the risk of bleeding events. Concomitant use of aspirin, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, warfarin, and other anti-coagulants may add to this risk. Case reports and epidemiological studies (case-control and cohort design) have demonstrated an association between use of drugs that interfere with serotonin reuptake and the occurrence of gastrointestinal bleeding. Bleeding events related to SSRIs and SNRIs use have ranged from ecchymoses, hematomas, epistaxis, and petechiae to life-threatening hemorrhages. Patients should be cautioned about the risk of bleeding associated with the concomitant use of CYMBALTA and NSAIDs, aspirin, or other drugs that affect coagulation. Severe Skin Reactions Severe skin reactions, including erythema multiforme and Stevens-Johnson Syndrome (SJS), can occur with CYMBALTA. The reporting rate of SJS associated with CYMBALTA use exceeds the general population background incidence rate for this serious skin reaction (1 to 2 cases per million person years). The reporting rate is generally accepted to be an underestimate due to underreporting. CYMBALTA should be discontinued at the first appearance of blisters, peeling rash, mucosal erosions, or any other sign of hypersensitivity if no other etiology can be identified. Discontinuation Of Treatment With CYMBALTA Discontinuation symptoms have been systematically evaluated in patients taking CYMBALTA. Following abrupt or tapered discontinuation in adult placebo-controlled clinical trials, the following symptoms occurred at 1% or greater and at a significantly higher rate in CYMBALTA-treated patients compared to those discontinuing from placebo: dizziness, headache, nausea, diarrhea, paresthesia, irritability, vomiting, insomnia, anxiety, hyperhidrosis, and fatigue. During marketing of other SSRIs and SNRIs (serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors), there have been spontaneous reports of adverse events occurring upon discontinuation of these drugs, particularly when abrupt, including the following: dysphoric mood, irritability, agitation, dizziness, sensory disturbances (e.g., paresthesias such as electric shock sensations), anxiety, confusion, headache, lethargy, emotional lability, insomnia, hypomania, tinnitus, and seizures. Although these events are generally self-limiting, some have been reported to be severe. Patients should be monitored for these symptoms when discontinuing treatment with CYMBALTA. A gradual reduction in the dose rather than abrupt cessation is recommended whenever possible. If intolerable symptoms occur following a decrease in the dose or upon discontinuation of treatment, then resuming the previously prescribed dose may be considered. Subsequently, the physician may continue decreasing the dose but at a more gradual rate [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION]. Activation Of Mania/Hypomania In adult placebo-controlled trials in patients with major depressive disorder, activation of mania or hypomania was reported in 0.1% (2/2489) of CYMBALTA-treated patients and 0.1% (1/1625) of placebo-treated patients. No activation of mania or hypomania was reported in GAD, fibromyalgia, or chronic musculoskeletal pain placebo-controlled trials. Activation of mania or hypomania has been reported in a small proportion of patients with mood disorders who were treated with other marketed drugs effective in the treatment of major depressive disorder. As with these other agents, CYMBALTA should be used cautiously in patients with a history of mania. Angle-Closure Glaucoma The pupillary dilation that occurs following use of many antidepressant drugs including CYMBALTA may trigger an angle closure attack in a patient with anatomically narrow angles who does not have a patent iridectomy. Seizures CYMBALTA has not been systematically evaluated in patients with a seizure disorder, and such patients were excluded from clinical studies. In adult placebo-controlled clinical trials, seizures/convulsions occurred in 0.03% (3/10,524) of patients treated with CYMBALTA and 0.01% (1/7699) of patients treated with placebo. CYMBALTA should be prescribed with care in patients with a history of a seizure disorder. Effect On Blood Pressure In adult placebo-controlled clinical trials across indications from baseline to endpoint, CYMBALTA treatment was associated with mean increases of 0.5 mm Hg in systolic blood pressure and 0.8 mm Hg in diastolic blood pressure compared to mean decreases of 0.6 mm Hg systolic and 0.4 mm Hg diastolic in placebo-treated patients. There was no significant difference in the frequency of sustained (3 consecutive visits) elevated blood pressure. In a clinical pharmacology study designed to evaluate the effects of CYMBALTA on various parameters, including blood pressure at supratherapeutic doses with an accelerated dose titration, there was evidence of increases in supine blood pressure at doses up to 200 mg twice daily. At the highest 200 mg twice daily dose, the increase in mean pulse rate was 5.0 to 6.8 beats and increases in mean blood pressure were 4.7 to 6.8 mm Hg (systolic) and 4.5 to 7 mm Hg (diastolic) up to 12 hours after dosing. Blood pressure should be measured prior to initiating treatment and periodically measured throughout treatment [see ADVERSE REACTIONS]. Clinically Important Drug Interactions Both CYP1A2 and CYP2D6 are responsible for CYMBALTA metabolism. Potential for Other Drugs to Affect CYMBALTA CYP1A2 Inhibitors — Co-administration of CYMBALTA with potent CYP1A2 inhibitors should be avoided [see DRUG INTERACTIONS]. CYP2D6 Inhibitors — Because CYP2D6 is involved in CYMBALTA metabolism, concomitant use of CYMBALTA with potent inhibitors of CYP2D6 would be expected to, and does, result in higher concentrations (on average of 60%) of CYMBALTA [see DRUG INTERACTIONS]. Potential for CYMBALTA to Affect Other Drugs Drugs Metabolized by CYP2D6 — Co-administration of CYMBALTA with drugs that are extensively metabolized by CYP2D6 and that have a narrow therapeutic index, including certain antidepressants (tricyclic antidepressants [TCAs], such as nortriptyline, amitriptyline, and imipramine), phenothiazines and Type 1C antiarrhythmics (e.g., propafenone, flecainide), should be approached with caution. Plasma TCA concentrations may need to be monitored and the dose of the TCA may need to be reduced if a TCA is co-administered with CYMBALTA. Because of the risk of serious ventricular arrhythmias and sudden death potentially associated with elevated plasma levels of thioridazine, CYMBALTA and thioridazine should not be co-administered [see DRUG INTERACTIONS]. Other Clinically Important Drug Interactions Alcohol — Use of CYMBALTA concomitantly with heavy alcohol intake may be associated with severe liver injury. For this reason, CYMBALTA should not be prescribed for patients with substantial alcohol use [see DRUG INTERACTIONS]. CNS Acting Drugs — Given the primary CNS effects of CYMBALTA, it should be used with caution when it is taken in combination with or substituted for other centrally acting drugs, including those with a similar mechanism of action [see DRUG INTERACTIONS]. Hyponatremia Hyponatremia may occur as a result of treatment with SSRIs and SNRIs, including CYMBALTA. In many cases, this hyponatremia appears to be the result of the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH). Cases with serum sodium lower than 110 mmol/L have been reported and appeared to be reversible when CYMBALTA was discontinued. Elderly patients may be at greater risk of developing hyponatremia with SSRIs and SNRIs. Also, patients taking diuretics or who are otherwise volume depleted may be at greater risk [see Use in Specific Populations]. Discontinuation of CYMBALTA should be considered in patients with symptomatic hyponatremia and appropriate medical intervention should be instituted. Signs and symptoms of hyponatremia include headache, difficulty concentrating, memory impairment, confusion, weakness, and unsteadiness, which may lead to falls. More severe and/or acute cases have been associated with hallucination, syncope, seizure, coma, respiratory arrest, and death. Use In Patients With Concomitant Illness Clinical experience with CYMBALTA in patients with concomitant systemic illnesses is limited. There is no information on the effect that alterations in gastric motility may have on the stability of CYMBALTA's enteric coating. In extremely acidic conditions, CYMBALTA, unprotected by the enteric coating, may undergo hydrolysis to form naphthol. Caution is advised in using CYMBALTA in patients with conditions that may slow gastric emptying (e.g., some diabetics). CYMBALTA has not been systematically evaluated in patients with a recent history of myocardial infarction or unstable coronary artery disease. Patients with these diagnoses were generally excluded from clinical studies during the product's premarketing testing. Hepatic Impairment Avoid use in patients with chronic liver disease or cirrhosis [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION, and Use In Specific Populations]. Severe Renal Impairment Avoid use in patients with severe renal impairment, GFR < 30 mL/min. Increased plasma concentration of CYMBALTA, and especially of its metabolites, occur in patients with end-stage renal disease (requiring dialysis) [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION and Use in Specific Populations]. Glycemic Control in Patients with Diabetes As observed in DPNP trials, CYMBALTA treatment worsens glycemic control in some patients with diabetes. In three clinical trials of CYMBALTA for the management of neuropathic pain associated with diabetic peripheral neuropathy, the mean duration of diabetes was approximately 12 years, the mean baseline fasting blood glucose was 176 mg/dL, and the mean baseline hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) was 7.8%. In the 12-week acute treatment phase of these studies, CYMBALTA was associated with a small increase in mean fasting blood glucose as compared to placebo. In the extension phase of these studies, which lasted up to 52 weeks, mean fasting blood glucose increased by 12 mg/dL in the CYMBALTA group and decreased by 11.5 mg/dL in the routine care group. HbA1c increased by 0.5% in the CYMBALTA and by 0.2% in the routine care groups. Urinary Hesitation And Retention CYMBALTA is in a class of drugs known to affect urethral resistance. If symptoms of urinary hesitation develop during treatment with CYMBALTA, consideration should be given to the possibility that they might be drug-related. In post marketing experience, cases of urinary retention have been observed. In some instances of urinary retention associated with CYMBALTA use, hospitalization and/or catheterization has been needed. Laboratory Tests No specific laboratory tests are recommended. Patient Counseling Information See FDA-approved patient labeling (Medication Guide).
  • Information on Medication Guide — Inform patients, their families, and their caregivers about the benefits and risks associated with treatment with CYMBALTA and counsel them in its appropriate use. A patient Medication Guide is available for CYMBALTA. Instruct patients, their families, and their caregivers to read the Medication Guide before starting CYMBALTA and each time their prescription is renewed, and assist them in understanding its contents. Give patients the opportunity to discuss the contents of the Medication Guide and to obtain answers to any questions they may have. The complete text of the Medication Guide is reprinted at the end of this document. Advise patients of the following issues and ask them to alert their prescriber if these occur while taking CYMBALTA.
  • Suicidal Thoughts and Behaviors — Encourage patients, their families, and their caregivers to be alert to the emergence of anxiety, agitation, panic attacks, insomnia, irritability, hostility, aggressiveness, impulsivity, akathisia (psychomotor restlessness), hypomania, mania, other unusual changes in behavior, worsening of depression, and suicidal ideation, especially early during antidepressant treatment and when the dose is adjusted up or down. Advise families and caregivers of patients to observe for the emergence of such symptoms on a day-to-day basis, since changes may be abrupt. Such symptoms should be reported to the patient's prescriber or health professional, especially if they are severe, abrupt in onset, or were not part of the patient's presenting symptoms. Symptoms such as these may be associated with an increased risk for suicidal thinking and behavior and indicate a need for very close monitoring and possibly changes in the medication [see BOXED WARNING, and WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
  • CYMBALTA should be swallowed whole and should not be chewed or crushed, nor should the capsule be opened and its contents be sprinkled on food or mixed with liquids. All of these might affect the enteric coating.
  • Continuing the Therapy Prescribed — While patients may notice improvement with CYMBALTA therapy in 1 to 4 weeks, advise patients to continue therapy as directed.
  • Hepatotoxicity — Inform patients that severe liver problems, sometimes fatal, have been reported in patients treated with CYMBALTA. Instruct patients to talk to their healthcare provider if they develop itching, right upper belly pain, dark urine, or yellow skin/eyes while taking CYMBALTA, which may be signs of liver problems. Instruct patients to talk to their healthcare provider about their alcohol consumption. Use of CYMBALTA with heavy alcohol intake may be associated with severe liver injury [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
  • Alcohol — Although CYMBALTA does not increase the impairment of mental and motor skills caused by alcohol, use of CYMBALTA concomitantly with heavy alcohol intake may be associated with severe liver injury. For this reason, CYMBALTA should not be prescribed for patients with substantial alcohol use [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS and DRUG INTERACTIONS].
  • Orthostatic Hypotension and Syncope — Advise patients of the risk of orthostatic hypotension and syncope, especially during the period of initial use and subsequent dose escalation, and in association with the use of concomitant drugs that might potentiate the orthostatic effect of CYMBALTA [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
  • Serotonin Syndrome — Caution patients about the risk of serotonin syndrome with the concomitant use of CYMBALTA and other serotonergic agents including triptans, tricyclic antidepressants, fentanyl, lithium, tramadol, buspirone, tryptophan and St. John's Wort [see CONTRAINDICATIONS, WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS, and DRUG INTERACTIONS]. Advise patients of the signs and symptoms associated with serotonin syndrome that may include mental status changes (e.g., agitation, hallucinations, delirium, and coma), autonomic instability (e.g., tachycardia, labile blood pressure, dizziness, diaphoresis, flushing, hyperthermia), neuromuscular changes (e.g., tremor, rigidity, myoclonus, hyperreflexia, incoordination), seizures, and/or gastrointestinal symptoms (e.g., nausea, vomiting, diarrhea). Caution patients to seek medical care immediately if they experience these symptoms.
  • Abnormal Bleeding — Caution patients about the concomitant use of CYMBALTA and NSAIDs, aspirin, warfarin, or other drugs that affect coagulation since combined use of psychotropic drugs that interfere with serotonin reuptake and these agents has been associated with an increased risk of bleeding [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
  • Severe Skin Reactions — Caution patients that CYMBALTA may cause serious skin reactions. This may need to be treated in a hospital and may be life-threatening. Counsel patients to call their doctor right away or get emergency help if they have skin blisters, peeling rash, sores in their mouth, hives, or any other allergic reactions [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
  • Discontinuation of Treatment — Instruct patients that discontinuation of CYMBALTA may be associated with symptoms such as dizziness, headache, nausea, diarrhea, paresthesia, irritability, vomiting, insomnia, anxiety, hyperhidrosis, and fatigue, and should be advised not to alter their dosing regimen, or stop taking CYMBALTA without consulting their physician [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
  • Activation of Mania or Hypomania — Adequately screen patients with depressive symptoms for risk of bipolar disorder (e.g. family history of suicide, bipolar disorder, and depression) prior to initiating treatment with CYMBALTA. Advise patients to report any signs or symptoms of a manic reaction such as greatly increased energy, severe trouble sleeping, racing thoughts, reckless behavior, talking more or faster than usual, unusually grand ideas, and excessive happiness or irritability [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
  • Angle-Closure Glaucoma — Advise patients that taking CYMBALTA can cause mild pupillary dilation, which in susceptible individuals, can lead to an episode of angle-closure glaucoma. Pre-existing glaucoma is almost always open-angle glaucoma because angle-closure glaucoma, when diagnosed, can be treated definitively with iridectomy. Open-angle glaucoma is not a risk factor for angle-closure glaucoma. Patients may wish to be examined to determine whether they are susceptible to angle-closure, and have a prophylactic procedure (e.g., iridectomy), if they are susceptible. [See WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
  • Seizures — Advise patients to inform their physician if they have a history of seizure disorder [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
  • Effects on Blood Pressure — Caution patients that CYMBALTA may cause an increase in blood pressure [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
  • Concomitant Medications — Advise patients to inform their physicians if they are taking, or plan to take, any prescription or over-the-counter medications, since there is a potential for interactions [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION, CONTRAINDICATIONS, WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS, and DRUG INTERACTIONS].
  • Hyponatremia — Advise patients that hyponatremia has been reported as a result of treatment with SNRIs and SSRIs, including CYMBALTA. Advise patients of the signs and symptoms of hyponatremia [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
  • Concomitant Illnesses — Advise patients to inform their physicians about all of their medical conditions [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
  • CYMBALTA is in a class of medicines that may affect urination. Instruct patients to consult with their healthcare provider if they develop any problems with urine flow [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
  • Pregnancy and Nursing Mothers
    Advise patients to notify their physician if they:
    • become pregnant during therapy
    • intend to become pregnant during therapy
    • are nursing [see Use In Specific Populations].
  • Pediatric Use - Safety and efficacy of CYMBALTA in patients 7 to 17 years of age have been established for the treatment of GAD. The types of adverse reactions observed with CYMBALTA in children and adolescents were generally similar to those observed in adults. The safety and effectiveness of CYMBALTA have not been established in pediatric patients less than 18 years of age with other indications. [See Use in Specific Populations].
  • Interference with Psychomotor Performance — Any psychoactive drug may impair judgment, thinking, or motor skills. Although in controlled studies CYMBALTA has not been shown to impair psychomotor performance, cognitive function, or memory, it may be associated with sedation and dizziness. Therefore, caution patients about operating hazardous machinery including automobiles, until they are reasonably certain that CYMBALTA therapy does not affect their ability to engage in such activities.
Nonclinical Toxicology Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment Of Fertility Carcinogenesis Duloxetine was administered in the diet to mice and rats for 2 years. In female mice receiving duloxetine at 140 mg/kg/day (6 times the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) of 120 mg/day on a mg/m² basis), there was an increased incidence of hepatocellular adenomas and carcinomas. The no-effect dose was 50 mg/kg/day (2 times the MRHD). Tumor incidence was not increased in male mice receiving duloxetine at doses up to 100 mg/kg/day (4 times the MRHD). In rats, dietary doses of duloxetine up to 27 mg/kg/day in females (2 times the MRHD) and up to 36 mg/kg/day in males (3 times the MRHD) did not increase the incidence of tumors. Mutagenesis Duloxetine was not mutagenic in the in vitro bacterial reverse mutation assay (Ames test) and was not clastogenic in an in vivo chromosomal aberration test in mouse bone marrow cells. Additionally, duloxetine was not genotoxic in an in vitro mammalian forward gene mutation assay in mouse lymphoma cells or in an in vitro unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) assay in primary rat hepatocytes, and did not induce sister chromatid exchange in Chinese hamster bone marrow in vivo. Impairment of Fertility Duloxetine administered orally to either male or female rats prior to and throughout mating at doses up to 45 mg/kg/day (4 times the MRHD) did not alter mating or fertility. Use In Specific Populations Pregnancy Pregnancy Category C Pregnancy Exposure Registry There is a pregnancy registry that monitors the pregnancy outcomes in women exposed to CYMBALTA during pregnancy. To enroll, contact the CYMBALTA Pregnancy Registry at 1-866-814-6975 or www.cymbaltapregnancyregistry.com. Risk Summary There are no adequate and well-controlled studies of CYMBALTA administration in pregnant women. In animal studies with duloxetine, fetal weights were decreased but there was no evidence of teratogenicity in pregnant rats and rabbits at oral doses administered during the period of organogenesis up to 4 and 7 times the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) of 120 mg/day, respectively. When duloxetine was administered orally to pregnant rats throughout gestation and lactation, pup weights at birth and pup survival to 1 day postpartum were decreased at a dose 2 times the MRHD. At this dose, pup behaviors consistent with increased reactivity, such as increased startle response to noise and decreased habituation of locomotor activity were observed. Post-weaning growth was not adversely affected. CYMBALTA should be used in pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus. Clinical Considerations Fetal/Neonatal Adverse Reaction — Neonates exposed during pregnancy to serotonin - norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) have developed complications requiring prolonged hospitalization, respiratory support, and tube feeding which can arise immediately upon delivery. Reported clinical findings have included respiratory distress, cyanosis, apnea, seizures, temperature instability, feeding difficulty, vomiting, hypoglycemia, hypotonia, hypertonia, hyperreflexia, tremor, jitteriness, irritability, and constant crying. These features are consistent with either a direct toxic effect of the SNRIs or SSRIs, or possibly, a drug discontinuation syndrome. It should be noted that, in some cases, the clinical picture is consistent with serotonin syndrome [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]. Data Animal Data — In animal reproduction studies, duloxetine has been shown to have adverse effects on embryo/fetal and postnatal development. When duloxetine was administered orally to pregnant rats and rabbits during the period of organogenesis, there was no evidence of teratogenicity at doses up to 45 mg/kg/day (4 times the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) of 120 mg/day on a mg/m² basis, in rat; 7 times the MRHD in rabbit). However, fetal weights were decreased at this dose, with a no-effect dose of 10 mg/kg/day approximately equal to the MRHD in rats; 2 times the MRHD in rabbits). When duloxetine was administered orally to pregnant rats throughout gestation and lactation, the survival of pups to 1 day postpartum and pup body weights at birth and during the lactation period were decreased at a dose of 30 mg/kg/day (2 times the MRHD); the no-effect dose was 10 mg/kg/day. Furthermore, behaviors consistent with increased reactivity, such as increased startle response to noise and decreased habituation of locomotor activity, were observed in pups following maternal exposure to 30 mg/kg/day. Post-weaning growth and reproductive performance of the progeny were not affected adversely by maternal duloxetine treatment. Nursing Mothers Risk Summary CYMBALTA is present in human milk. In a published study, lactating women who were weaning their infants were given CYMBALTA. At steady state, the concentration of CYMBALTA in breast milk was approximately 25% that of maternal plasma. The estimated daily infant dose was approximately 0.14% of the maternal dose. The developmental and health benefits of human milk feeding should be considered along with the mother's clinical need for CYMBALTA and any potential adverse effects on the milk-fed child from the drug or from the underlying maternal condition. Exercise caution when CYMBALTA is administered to a nursing woman. Data The disposition of CYMBALTA was studied in 6 lactating women who were at least 12 weeks postpartum and had elected to wean their infants. The women were given 40 mg of CYMBALTA twice daily for 3.5 days. The peak concentration measured in breast milk occurred at a median of 3 hours after the dose. The amount of CYMBALTA in breast milk was approximately 7 mcg/day while on that dose; the estimated daily infant dose was approximately 2 mcg/kg/day. The presence of CYMBALTA metabolites in breast milk was not examined. Pediatric Use Generalized Anxiety Disorder In pediatric patients aged 7 to 17 years, efficacy was demonstrated in one 10week, placebo-controlled trial. The study included 272 pediatric patients with GAD of which 47% were 7 to 11 years of age. CYMBALTA demonstrated superiority over placebo as measured by greater improvement in the Pediatric Anxiety Rating Scale (PARS) for GAD severity score [see Clinical Studies]. The safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients less than 7 years of age have not been established. Major Depressive Disorder Efficacy was not demonstrated in two 10-week, placebo-controlled trials with 800 pediatric patients with MDD, age 7-17. Neither CYMBALTA nor an active control (indicated for treatment of pediatric depression) was superior to placebo. Thus, safety and effectiveness of CYMBALTA have not been established in pediatric patients less than 18 years of age with MDD. The most Frequently observed adverse reactions in the clinical trials included nausea, headache, decreased weight, and abdominal pain. Decreased appetite and weight loss have been observed in association with the use of SSRIs and SNRIs. Perform regular monitoring of weight and growth in children and adolescents treated with an SNRI such as CYMBALTA [see ADVERSE REACTIONS]. Use of CYMBALTA in a child or adolescent must balance the potential risks with the clinical need [see BOXED WARNING and WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]. Animal Data Duloxetine administration to young rats from post-natal day 21 (weaning) through post-natal day 90 (adult) resulted in decreased body weights that persisted into adulthood, but recovered when drug treatment was discontinued; slightly delayed (~1.5 days) sexual maturation in females, without any effect on fertility; and a delay in learning a complex task in adulthood, which was not observed after drug treatment was discontinued. These effects were observed at the high dose of 45 mg/kg/day (2 times the MRHD, for a child); the no-effect-level was 20 mg/kg/day (≈1 times the MRHD, for a child). Geriatric Use Of the 2,418 patients in premarketing clinical studies of CYMBALTA for MDD, 5.9% (143) were 65 years of age or over. Of the 1041 patients in CLBP premarketing studies, 21.2% (221) were 65 years of age or over. Of the 487 patients in OA premarketing studies, 40.5% (197) were 65 years of age or over. Of the 1,074 patients in the DPNP premarketing studies, 33% (357) were 65 years of age or over. Of the 1,761 patients in FM premarketing studies, 7.9% (140) were 65 years of age or over. In the MDD, GAD, DPNP, FM, OA, and CLBP studies, no overall differences in safety or effectiveness were observed between these subjects and younger subjects, and other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients, but greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be ruled out. SSRIs and SNRIs, including CYMBALTA have been associated with cases of clinically significant hyponatremia in elderly patients, who may be at greater risk for this adverse event [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]. The pharmacokinetics of duloxetine after a single dose of 40 mg were compared in healthy elderly females (65 to 77 years) and healthy middle-age females (32 to 50 years). There was no difference in the Cmax, but the AUC of duloxetine was somewhat (about 25%) higher and the half-life about 4 hours longer in the elderly females. Population pharmacokinetic analyses suggest that the typical values for clearance decrease by approximately 1% for each year of age between 25 to 75 years of age; but age as a predictive factor only accounts for a small percentage of between-patient variability. Dosage adjustment based on the age of the patient is not necessary. Gender Duloxetine's half-life is similar in men and women. Dosage adjustment based on gender is not necessary. Smoking Status Duloxetine bioavailability (AUC) appears to be reduced by about one-third in smokers. Dosage modifications are not recommended for smokers. Race No specific pharmacokinetic study was conducted to investigate the effects of race. Hepatic Impairment Patients with clinically evident hepatic impairment have decreased duloxetine metabolism and elimination. After a single 20 mg dose of CYMBALTA, 6 cirrhotic patients with moderate liver impairment (Child-Pugh Class B) had a mean plasma duloxetine clearance about 15% that of age- and gender-matched healthy subjects, with a 5-fold increase in mean exposure (AUC). Although Cmax was similar to normals in the cirrhotic patients, the half-life was about 3 times longer [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION and WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]. Severe Renal Impairment Limited data are available on the effects of duloxetine in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). After a single 60 mg dose of duloxetine, Cmax and AUC values were approximately 100% greater in patients with end-stage renal disease receiving chronic intermittent hemodialysis than in subjects with normal renal function. The elimination half-life, however, was similar in both groups. The AUCs of the major circulating metabolites, 4-hydroxy duloxetine glucuronide and 5-hydroxy, 6-methoxy duloxetine sulfate, largely excreted in urine, were approximately 7- to 9-fold higher and would be expected to increase further with multiple dosing. Population PK analyses suggest that mild to moderate degrees of renal impairment (estimated CrCl 30-80 mL/min) have no significant effect on duloxetine apparent clearance [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION and WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]. Last reviewed on RxList: 10/31/2014
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

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