Tooth Development The use of drugs of the tetracycline-class during tooth development (last half of pregnancy, infancy and childhood to the age of 8 years) may cause permanent discoloration of the teeth (yellow-gray-brown). This adverse reaction is more common during long-term use of the drugs but it has been observed following repeated short-term courses. Enamel hypoplasia has also been reported. Doxycycline should not be used in this age group, except for anthrax, including inhalational anthrax (post-exposure), unless other drugs are not likely to be effective or are contraindicated. Clostridium Difficile Associated Diarrhea Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea (CDAD) has been reported with use of nearly all antibacterial agents, including ACTICLATE, and may range in severity from mild diarrhea to fatal colitis. Treatment with antibacterial agents alters the normal flora of the colon leading to overgrowth of C. difficile. C. difficile produces toxins A and B which contribute to the development of CDAD. Hypertoxin producing strains of C. difficile cause increased morbidity and mortality, as these infections can be refractory to antibacterial therapy and may require colectomy. CDAD must be considered in all patients who present with diarrhea following antibacterial use. Careful medical history is necessary since CDAD has been reported to occur over two months after the administration of antibacterial agents. If CDAD is suspected or confirmed, ongoing antibacterial use not directed against C. difficile may need to be discontinued. Appropriate fluid and electrolyte management, protein supplementation, antibacterial treatment of C. difficile, and surgical evaluation should be instituted as clinically indicated. Photosensitivity Photosensitivity manifested by an exaggerated sunburn reaction has been observed in some individuals taking tetracyclines. Patients apt to be exposed to direct sunlight or ultraviolet light should be advised that this reaction can occur with tetracycline drugs, and treatment should be discontinued at the first evidence of skin erythema. Superinfection As with other antibacterial preparations, use of ACTICLATE may result in overgrowth of non-susceptible organisms, including fungi. If superinfection occurs, the antibacterial should be discontinued and appropriate therapy instituted. Intracranial Hypertension Intracranial hypertension (IH, pseudotumor cerebri) has been associated with the use of tetracyclines including ACTICLATE. Clinical manifestations of IH include headache, blurred vision, diplopia, and vision loss; papilledema can be found on fundoscopy. Women of childbearing age who are overweight or have a history of IH are at greater risk for developing tetracycline associated IH. Concomitant use of isotretinoin and ACTICLATE should be avoided because isotretinoin is also known to cause pseudotumor cerebri. Although IH typically resolves after discontinuation of treatment, the possibility for permanent visual loss exists. If visual disturbance occurs during treatment, prompt ophthalmologic evaluation is warranted. Since intracranial pressure can remain elevated for weeks after drug cessation patients should be monitored until they stabilize. Skeletal Development All tetracyclines form a stable calcium complex in any bone-forming tissue. A decrease in fibula growth rate has been observed in prematures given oral tetracycline in doses of 25 mg per kg every six hours. This reaction was shown to be reversible when the drug was discontinued. Results of animal studies indicate that tetracyclines cross the placenta, are found in fetal tissues, and can have toxic effects on the developing fetus (often related to retardation of skeletal development). Evidence of embryotoxicity also has been noted in animals treated early in pregnancy. Tetracycline-class drugs can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman, but data for doxycycline are limited. If any tetracycline is used during pregnancy or if the patient becomes pregnant while taking these drugs, the patient should be apprised of the potential hazard to the fetus. Antianabolic Action The antianabolic action of the tetracyclines may cause an increase in BUN. Studies to date indicate that this does not occur with the use of doxycycline in patients with impaired renal function. Malaria Doxycycline offers substantial but not complete suppression of the asexual blood stages of Plasmodium strains. Doxycycline does not suppress P. falciparum's sexual blood stage gametocytes. Subjects completing this prophylactic regimen may still transmit the infection to mosquitoes outside endemic areas. Development Of Drug-Resistant Bacteria Prescribing ACTICLATE in the absence of a proven or strongly suspected bacterial infection or a prophylactic indication is unlikely to provide benefit to the patient and increases the risk of the development of drug-resistant bacteria. Laboratory Monitoring For Long-Term Therapy In long-term therapy, periodic laboratory evaluation of organ systems, including hematopoietic, renal and hepatic studies should be performed. Nonclinical Toxicology Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment Of Fertility Long-term studies in animals to evaluate carcinogenic potential of doxycycline have not been conducted. However, there has been evidence of oncogenic activity in rats in studies with the related antibacterials, oxytetracycline (adrenal and pituitary tumors) and minocycline (thyroid tumors). Likewise, although mutagenicity studies of doxycycline have not been conducted, positive results in in vitro mammalian cell assays have been reported for related antibacterials (tetracycline, oxytetracycline). Doxycycline administered orally at dosage levels as high as 250 mg per kg per day had no apparent effect on the fertility of female rats. Effect on male fertility has not been studied. Use In Specific Populations Pregnancy Teratogenic Effects Pregnancy Category D: [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS] There are no adequate and well-controlled studies on the use of doxycycline in pregnant women. The vast majority of reported experience with doxycycline during human pregnancy is short-term, first trimester exposure. There are no human data available to assess the effects of long-term therapy of doxycycline in pregnant women such as that proposed for the treatment of anthrax exposure. An expert review of published data on experiences with doxycycline use during pregnancy by TERIS - the Teratogen Information System - concluded that therapeutic doses during pregnancy are unlikely to pose a substantial teratogenic risk (the quantity and quality of data were assessed as limited to fair), but the data are insufficient to state that there is no risk.1 A case-control study (18,515 mothers of infants with congenital anomalies and 32,804 mothers of infants with no congenital anomalies) shows a weak but marginally statistically significant association with total malformations and use of doxycycline anytime during pregnancy. Sixty-three (0.19%) of the controls and 56 (0.30%) of the cases were treated with doxycycline. This association was not seen when the analysis was confined to maternal treatment during the period of organogenesis (that is, in the second and third months of gestation), with the exception of a marginal relationship with neural tube defect based on only two-exposed cases.2 A small prospective study of 81 pregnancies describes 43 pregnant women treated for 10 days with doxycycline during early first trimester. All mothers reported their exposed infants were normal at 1 year of age.3 Nonteratogenic effects [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]. Nursing Mothers Tetracyclines are excreted in human milk, however, the extent of absorption of tetracyclines including doxycycline, by the breastfed infant is not known. Short-term use by lactating women is not necessarily contraindicated. The effects of prolonged exposure to doxycycline in breast milk are unknown4. Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from doxycycline, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]. Pediatric Use Because of the effects of drugs of the tetracycline-class on tooth development and growth, ACTICLATE should not be used in pediatric patients to the age of 8 years, unless the potential benefits are expected to outweigh the risks such as for anthrax, or when other drugs are not likely to be effective or are contraindicated [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION]. Geriatric Use Clinical studies of doxycycline hyclate tablets did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients. ACTICLATE Tablets, 75 mg contain 0.34 mg (0.0146 mEq) of sodium. ACTICLATE Tablets, 150 mg contain 0.68 mg (0.0295 mEq) of sodium. REFERENCES 1. Friedman JM, Polifka JE. Teratogenic Effects of Drugs. A Resource for Clinicians (TERIS). Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Press: 2000: 149-195. 2. Cziezel AE and Rockenbauer M. Teratogenic study of doxycycline. Obstet Gynecol 1997; 89: 524528. 3. Horne HW Jr. and Kundsin RB. The role of mycoplasma among 81 consecutive pregnancies: a prospective study. Int J Fertil 1980; 25: 315-317. 4. Hale T. Medications and Mothers Milk. 9th edition. Amarillo, TX: Pharmasoft Publishing 2000; 225-226. Last reviewed on RxList: 8/14/2014
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.