Drug: Dexedrine

DEXEDRINE (dextroamphetamine sulfate) is the dextro isomer of the compound d,1-amphetamine sulfate, a sympathomimetic amine of the amphetamine group. Chemically, dextroamphetamine is d-alpha-methylphenethylamine, and is present in all forms of DEXEDRINE as the neutral sulfate. Structural formula: SPANSULE capsules Each SPANSULE sustained-release capsule is so prepared that an initial dose is released promptly and the remaining medication is released gradually over a prolonged period. Each capsule, with brown cap and clear body, contains dextroamphetamine sulfate. The 5-mg capsule is imprinted 5 mg and 512 on the brown cap and is imprinted 5 mg and ap on the clear body. The 10-mg capsule is imprinted 10 mg—513—on the brown cap and is imprinted 10 mg—ap—on the clear body. The 15-mg capsule is imprinted 15 mg and 514 on the brown cap and is imprinted 15 mg and ap on the clear body. A narrow bar appears above and below 15 mg and 514. Product reformulation in 1996 has caused a minor change in the color of the time-released pellets within each capsule. Inactive ingredients now consist of cetyl alcohol, D&C Yellow No. 10, dibutyl sebacate, ethylcellulose, FD&C Blue No. 1, FD&C Blue No. 1 aluminum lake, FD&C Red No. 40, FD&C Yellow No. 6, gelatin, hypromellose, polyethylene glycol, povidone, sodium lauryl sulfate, sugar spheres, and trace amounts of other inactive ingredients.

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Cardiovascular Palpitations, tachycardia, elevation of blood pressure. There have been isolated reports of cardiomyopathy associated with chronic amphetamine use. Central Nervous System Psychotic episodes at recommended doses (rare), overstimulation, restlessness, dizziness, insomnia, euphoria, dyskinesia, dysphoria, tremor, headache, exacerbation of motor and phonic tics, and Tourette's syndrome. Gastrointestinal Dryness of the mouth, unpleasant taste, diarrhea, constipation, other gastrointestinal disturbances. Anorexia and weight loss may occur as undesirable effects. Allergic Urticaria. Endocrine Impotence, changes in libido, frequent or prolonged erections. Drug Abuse And Dependence Dextroamphetamine sulfate is a Schedule II controlled substance. Amphetamines have been extensively abused. Tolerance, extreme psychological dependence and severe social disability have occurred. There are reports of patients who have increased the dosage to many times that recommended. Abrupt cessation following prolonged high dosage administration results in extreme fatigue and mental depression; changes are also noted on the sleep EEG. Manifestations of chronic intoxication with amphetamines include severe dermatoses, marked insomnia, irritability, hyperactivity, and personality changes. The most severe manifestation of chronic intoxication is psychosis, often clinically indistinguishable from schizophrenia. This is rare with oral amphetamines. Read the Dexedrine (dextroamphetamine) Side Effects Center for a complete guide to possible side effectsLearn More »

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Amphetamines should be administered at the lowest effective dosage and dosage should be individually adjusted. Late evening doses should be avoided because of the resulting insomnia. Narcolepsy Usual dose is 5 to 60 mg per day in divided doses, depending on the individual patient response. Narcolepsy seldom occurs in children under 12 years of age; however, when it does, DEXEDRINE may be used. The suggested initial dose for patients aged 6 to 12 is 5 mg daily; daily dose may be raised in increments of 5 mg at weekly intervals until an optimal response is obtained. In patients 12 years of age and older, start with 10 mg daily; daily dosage may be raised in increments of 10 mg at weekly intervals until an optimal response is obtained. If bothersome adverse reactions appear (e.g., insomnia or anorexia), dosage should be reduced. SPANSULE capsules may be used for once-a-day dosage wherever appropriate. Attention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity The SPANSULE capsule formulation is not recommended for pediatric patients younger than 6 years of age. In pediatric patients 6 years of age and older, start with 5 mg once or twice daily; daily dosage may be raised in increments of 5 mg at weekly intervals until optimal response is obtained. Only in rare cases will it be necessary to exceed a total of 40 mg per day. SPANSULE capsules may be used for once-a-day dosage wherever appropriate. Where possible, drug administration should be interrupted occasionally to determine if there is a recurrence of behavioral symptoms sufficient to require continued therapy.

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Acidifying Agents Gastrointestinal acidifying agents (guanethidine, reserpine, glutamic acid HCl, ascorbic acid, fruit juices, etc.) lower absorption of amphetamines. Urinary acidifying agents (ammonium chloride, sodium acid phosphate, etc.) increase the concentration of the ionized species of the amphetamine molecule, thereby increasing urinary excretion. Both groups of agents lower blood levels and efficacy of amphetamines. Adrenergic Blockers Adrenergic blockers are inhibited by amphetamines. Alkalinizing Agents Gastrointestinal alkalinizing agents (sodium bicarbonate, etc.) increase absorption of amphetamines. Urinary alkalinizing agents (acetazolamide, some thiazides) increase the concentration of the non-ionized species of the amphetamine molecule, thereby decreasing urinary excretion. Both groups of agents increase blood levels and therefore potentiate the actions of amphetamines. Antidepressants, Tricyclic Amphetamines may enhance the activity of tricyclic or sympathomimetic agents; d-amphetamine with desipramine or protriptyline and possibly other tricyclics cause striking and sustained increases in the concentration of d-amphetamine in the brain; cardiovascular effects can be potentiated. MAO Inhibitors MAOI antidepressants, as well as a metabolite of furazolidone, slow amphetamine metabolism. This slowing potentiates amphetamines, increasing their effect on the release of norepinephrine and other monoamines from adrenergic nerve endings; this can cause headaches and other signs of hypertensive crisis. A variety of neurological toxic effects and malignant hyperpyrexia can occur, sometimes with fatal results. Antihistamines Amphetamines may counteract the sedative effect of antihistamines. Antihypertensives Amphetamines may antagonize the hypotensive effects of antihypertensives. Chlorpromazine Chlorpromazine blocks dopamine and norepinephrine reuptake, thus inhibiting the central stimulant effects of amphetamines, and can be used to treat amphetamine poisoning. Ethosuximide Amphetamines may delay intestinal absorption of ethosuximide. Haloperidol Haloperidol blocks dopamine and norepinephrine reuptake, thus inhibiting the central stimulant effects of amphetamines. Lithium Carbonate The stimulatory effects of amphetamines may be inhibited by lithium carbonate. Meperidine Amphetamines potentiate the analgesic effect of meperidine. Methenamine Therapy Urinary excretion of amphetamines is increased, and efficacy is reduced, by acidifying agents used in methenamine therapy. Norepinephrine Amphetamines enhance the adrenergic effect of norepinephrine. Phenobarbital Amphetamines may delay intestinal absorption of phenobarbital; co-administration of phenobarbital may produce a synergistic anticonvulsant action. Phenytoin Amphetamines may delay intestinal absorption of phenytoin; co-administration of phenytoin may produce a synergistic anticonvulsant action. Propoxyphene In cases of propoxyphene overdosage, amphetamine CNS stimulation is potentiated and fatal convulsions can occur. Veratrum Alkaloids Amphetamines inhibit the hypotensive effect of veratrum alkaloids. Drug/Laboratory Test Interactions Amphetamines can cause a significant elevation in plasma corticosteroid levels. This increase is greatest in the evening. Amphetamines may interfere with urinary steroid determinations. Read the Dexedrine Drug Interactions Center for a complete guide to possible interactions Learn More »

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DEXEDRINE is indicated in: Narcolepsy Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity As an integral part of a total treatment program that typically includes other measures (psychological, educational, social) for patients (ages 6 years to 16 years) with this syndrome. A diagnosis of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD; DSM-IV) implies the presence of the hyperactive-impulsive or inattentive symptoms that caused impairment and were present before age 7 years. The symptoms must cause clinically significant impairment, e.g., in social, academic, or occupational functioning, and be present in 2 or more settings, e.g., school (or work) and at home. The symptoms must not be better accounted for by another mental disorder. For the Inattentive Type, at least 6 of the following symptoms must have persisted for at least 6 months: lack of attention to details/careless mistakes; lack of sustained attention; poor listener; failure to follow through on tasks; poor organization; avoids tasks requiring sustained mental effort; loses things; easily distracted; forgetful. For the Hyperactive-Impulsive Type, at least 6 of the following symptoms must have persisted for at least 6 months: fidgeting/squirming; leaving seat; inappropriate running/climbing; difficulty with quiet activities; “on the go”; excessive talking; blurting answers; can't wait turn; intrusive. The Combined Type requires both inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive criteria to be met. Special Diagnostic Considerations Specific etiology of this syndrome is unknown, and there is no single diagnostic test. Adequate diagnosis requires the use of medical and special psychological, educational, and social resources. Learning may or may not be impaired. The diagnosis must be based upon a complete history and evaluation of the patient and not solely on the presences of the required number of DSM-IV characteristics. Need for Comprehensive Treatment Program DEXEDRINE is indicated as an integral part of a total treatment program for ADHD that may include other measures (psychological, educational, social) for patients with this syndrome. Drug treatment may not be indicated for all patients with this syndrome. Stimulants are not intended for use in patients who exhibit symptoms secondary to environmental factors and/or other primary psychiatric disorders, including psychosis. Appropriate educational placement is essential and psychosocial intervention is often helpful. When remedial measures alone are insufficient, the decision to prescribe stimulant medication will depend upon the physician's assessment of the chronicity and severity of the patient's symptoms.

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Advanced arteriosclerosis, symptomatic cardiovascular disease, moderate to severe hypertension, hyperthyroidism, known hypersensitivity or idiosyncrasy to the sympathomimetic amines, glaucoma. Agitated states. Patients with a history of drug abuse. During or within 14 days following the administration of monoamine oxidase inhibitors (hypertensive crises may result). Last reviewed on RxList: 12/19/2013
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

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Individual patient response to amphetamines varies widely. While toxic symptoms occasionally occur as an idiosyncrasy at doses as low as 2 mg, they are rare with doses of less than 15 mg; 30 mg can produce severe reactions, yet doses of 400 to 500 mg are not necessarily fatal. In rats, the oral LD50 of dextroamphetamine sulfate is 96.8 mg/kg. Manifestations of acute overdosage with amphetamines include restlessness, tremor, hyperreflexia, rhabdomyolysis, rapid respiration, hyperpyrexia, confusion, assaultiveness, hallucinations, panic states. Fatigue and depression usually follow the central stimulation. Cardiovascular effects include arrhythmias, hypertension or hypotension, and circulatory collapse. Gastrointestinal symptoms include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal cramps. Fatal poisoning is usually preceded by convulsions and coma. Treatment Consult with a Certified Poison Control Center for up-to-date guidance and advice. Management of acute amphetamine intoxication is largely symptomatic and includes gastric lavage, administration of activated charcoal, administration of a cathartic, and sedation. Experience with hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis is inadequate to permit recommendation in this regard. Acidification of the urine increases amphetamine excretion, but is believed to increase risk of acute renal failure if myoglobinuria is present. If acute, severe hypertension complicates amphetamine overdosage, administration of intravenous phentolamine (Bedford Laboratories) has been suggested. However, a gradual drop in blood pressure will usually result when sufficient sedation has been achieved. Chlorpromazine antagonizes the central stimulant effects of amphetamines and can be used to treat amphetamine intoxication. Since much of the SPANSULE capsule medication is coated for gradual release, therapy directed at reversing the effects of the ingested drug and at supporting the patient should be continued for as long as overdosage symptoms remain. Saline cathartics are useful for hastening the evacuation of pellets that have not already released medication.

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DEXEDRINE SPANSULE capsules Each capsule, with brown cap and clear body, contains dextroamphetamine sulfate. The 5-mg capsule is imprinted 5 mg and 512 on the brown cap and is imprinted 5 mg and ap on the clear body. The 10-mg capsule is imprinted 10 mg—513—on the brown cap and is imprinted 10 mg—ap—on the clear body. The 15-mg capsule is imprinted 15 mg and 514 on the brown cap and is imprinted 15 mg and ap on the clear body. A narrow bar appears above and below 15 mg and 514. 5 mg 90s: NDC 52054-512-09
10 mg 90s: NDC 52054-513-09
15 mg 90s: NDC 52054-514-09 Store at controlled room temperature between 20° and 25°C (68° and 77°F) [see USP]. Dispense in a tight, light-resistant container. Manufactured by: Catalent Pharma Solutions Winchester, KY 40391 For: Amedra Pharmaceuticals LLC Horsham, PA 19044. Rev. October, 2013Last reviewed on RxList: 12/19/2013
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

Source: http://www.rxlist.com

General The least amount feasible should be prescribed or dispensed at 1 time in order to minimize the possibility of overdosage. Information for Patients Amphetamines may impair the ability of the patient to engage in potentially hazardous activities such as operating machinery or vehicles; the patient should therefore be cautioned accordingly. Prescribers or other health professionals should inform patients, their families, and their caregivers about the benefits and risks associated with treatment with dextroamphetamine and should counsel them in its appropriate use. A patient Medication Guide is available for DEXEDRINE. The prescriber or health professional should instruct patients, their families, and their caregivers to read the Medication Guide and should assist them in understanding its contents. Patients should be given the opportunity to discuss the contents of the Medication Guide and to obtain answers to any questions they may have. The complete text of the Medication Guide is reprinted at the end of this document. Circulation problems in fingers and toes [Peripheral vasculopathy, including Raynaud's phenomenon]
  • Instruct patients beginning treatment with DEXEDRINE about the risk of peripheral vasculopathy, including Raynaud's phenomenon, and associated signs and symptoms: fingers or toes may feel numb, cool, painful, and/or may change color from pale, to blue, to red.
  • Instruct patients to report to their physician any new numbness, pain, skin color change, or sensitivity to temperature in fingers or toes.
  • Instruct patients to call their physician immediately with any signs of unexplained wounds appearing on fingers or toes while taking DEXEDRINE.
  • Further clinical evaluation (e.g., rheumatology referral) may be appropriate for certain patients.
Carcinogenesis/Mutagenesis Mutagenicity studies and long-term studies in animals to determine the carcinogenic potential of DEXEDRINE have not been performed. Pregnancy Teratogenic Effects Pregnancy Category C DEXEDRINE has been shown to have embryotoxic and teratogenic effects when administered to A/Jax mice and C57BL mice in doses approximately 41 times the maximum human dose. Embryotoxic effects were not seen in New Zealand white rabbits given the drug in doses 7 times the human dose nor in rats given 12.5 times the maximum human dose. While there are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women, there has been 1 report of severe congenital bony deformity, tracheoesophageal fistula, and anal atresia (VATER association) in a baby born to a woman who took dextroamphetamine sulfate with lovastatin during the first trimester of pregnancy. DEXEDRINE should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus. Nonteratogenic Effects Infants born to mothers dependent on amphetamines have an increased risk of premature delivery and low birth weight. Also, these infants may experience symptoms of withdrawal as demonstrated by dysphoria, including agitation, and significant lassitude. Nursing Mothers Amphetamines are excreted in human milk. Mothers taking amphetamines should be advised to refrain from nursing. Pediatric Use Long-term effects of amphetamines in pediatric patients have not been well established. DEXEDRINE is not recommended for use in pediatric patients younger than 6 years of age with Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity described under INDICATIONS AND USAGE. Clinical experience suggests that in psychotic children, administration of amphetamines may exacerbate symptoms of behavior disturbance and thought disorder. Amphetamines have been reported to exacerbate motor and phonic tics and Tourette's syndrome. Therefore, clinical evaluation for tics and Tourette's syndrome in children and their families should precede use of stimulant medications. Data are inadequate to determine whether chronic administration of amphetamines may be associated with growth inhibition; therefore, growth should be monitored during treatment. Drug treatment is not indicated in all cases of Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity and should be considered only in light of the complete history and evaluation of the child. The decision to prescribe amphetamines should depend on the physician's assessment of the chronicity and severity of the child's symptoms and their appropriateness for his or her age. Prescription should not depend solely on the presence of one or more of the behavioral characteristics. When these symptoms are associated with acute stress reactions, treatment with amphetamines is usually not indicated. Last reviewed on RxList: 12/19/2013
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

Source: http://www.rxlist.com

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