Drug: Declomycin

Demeclocycline hydrochloride is an antibiotic isolated from a mutant strain of Streptomyces aureofaciens. Chemically it is 7-Chloro-4-(dimethylamino)1,4,4a,5,5a,6,11,12a-octahydro-3,6,10,12,12a-pentahydroxy-1,11-dioxo-2naphthacenecarboxamide monohydrochloride. Its structural formula is: Demeclocycline hydrochloride tablets, USP, for oral administration, contain 150 mg or 300 mg of demeclocycline hydrochloride and the following inactive ingredients: alginic acid, corn starch, D&C Red #7, D&C Yellow #10 Aluminium Lake, ethylcellulose, hypromellose, light mineral oil, magnesium stearate, mineral oil, sodium lauryl sulfate, sorbitol and titanium dioxide.

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The following reactions have been reported in patients receiving tetracyclines: Gastrointestinal: Anorexia, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, glossitis, dysphagia, enterocolitis, pancreatitis and inflammatory lesions (with monilial overgrowth) in the anogenital region, increases in liver enzymes, and hepatic toxicity has been reported rarely. Rarely, hepatitis and liver failure have been reported. These reactions have been caused by both the oral and parenteral administration of tetracyclines. Instances of esophageal ulcerations have been reported in patients receiving oral tetracyclines. Most of the patients were reported to have taken the medication immediately before lying down. (See DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION.) Skin: Maculopapular and erythematous rashes, erythema multiforme. Exfoliative dermatitis has been reported but is uncommon. Fixed drug eruptions and Stevens-Johnson syndrome have been reported rarely. Lesions occurring on the glans penis have caused balanitis. Pigmentation of the skin and mucous membranes has also been reported. Photosensitivity is discussed above. (See WARNINGS.) Renal toxicity: Acute renal failure. Rise in BUN has been reported and is apparently dose related. Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. (See WARNINGS.) Hypersensitivity reactions: Urticaria, angioneurotic edema, polyarthralgia, anaphylaxis, anaphylactoid purpura, pericarditis exacerbation of systemic lupus erythematosus, lupus-like syndrome, pulmonary infiltrates with eosinophilia. Hematologic: Hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, neutropenia and eosinophilia have been reported. CNS: Pseudotumor cerebri (benign intracranial hypertension) in adults and bulging fontanels in infants (see PRECAUTIONS – General). Dizziness, headache, tinnitus, and visual disturbances have been reported. Myasthenic syndrome has been reported rarely. Other: When given over prolonged periods, tetracyclines have been reported to produce brown-black microscopic discoloration of thyroid glands. No abnormalities of thyroid function studies are known to occur. Very rare cases of abnormal thyroid function have been reported. Tooth discoloration has occurred in pediatric patients less than 8 years of age (see WARNINGS), and has been reported rarely in adults. Read the Declomycin (demeclocycline hcl) Side Effects Center for a complete guide to possible side effectsLearn More »

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Therapy should be continued for at least 24 to 48 hours after symptoms and fever have subsided. Concomitant therapy: Absorption of tetracyclines is impaired by antacids containing aluminum, calcium, or magnesium, and by iron-containing preparations. Foods and some dairy products also interfere with absorption. Oral forms of tetracycline should be given at least 1 hour before or 2 hours after meals. In patients with renal impairment: (See WARNINGS.) Tetracyclines should be used cautiously in patients with impaired renal function. Total dosage should be decreased by reduction of recommended individual doses and/or by extending time intervals between doses. In patients with liver impairment: Tetracyclines should be used cautiously in patients with impaired liver function. Total dosage should be decreased by reduction of recommended individual doses and/or by extending time intervals between doses. Administration of adequate amounts of fluid with the oral formulations of tetracyclines is recommended to wash down the drugs and reduce the risk of esophageal irritation and ulceration. (See ADVERSE REACTIONS.) Adults Usual daily dose – Four divided doses of 150 mg each or two divided doses of 300 mg each. For pediatric patients above eight years of age: Usual daily dose, 7 to 13 mg per kg body weight per day, depending upon the severity of the disease, divided into two to four doses not to exceed adult dosage of 600 mg per day. Gonorrhea patients sensitive to penicillin may be treated with demeclocycline administered as an initial oral dose of 600 mg followed by 300 mg every 12 hours for four days to a total of 3 grams.

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Because tetracyclines have shown to depress plasma prothrombin activity, patients who are on anticoagulant therapy may require downward adjustment of their anticoagulant dosage. Since bacteriostatic drugs may interfere with the bactericidal action of penicillins, it is advisable to avoid giving tetracycline-class drugs in conjunction with penicillin. Concurrent use of tetracyclines with oral contraceptives may render oral contraceptives less effective. The concurrent use of tetracyclines and methoxyflurane has been reported to result in fatal renal toxicity. Absorption of tetracyclines is impaired by antacids containing aluminum, calcium or magnesium, and by iron-containing preparations. Read the Declomycin Drug Interactions Center for a complete guide to possible interactions Learn More »

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Demeclocycline hydrochloride, USP is indicated in the treatment of infections caused by susceptible strains of the designated microorganisms in the conditions below: Rocky Mountain spotted fever, typhus fever and the typhus group, Q fever, rickettsialpox, and tick fevers caused by rickettsiae; Respiratory tract infections caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae Lymphogranuloma venereum due to Chlamydia trachomatis Psittacosis (Ornithosis) due to Chlamydia psittaci Trachoma due to Chlamydia trachomatis, although the infectious agent is not always eliminated as judged by immunofluorescence Inclusion conjunctivitis caused by Chlamydia trachomatis Nongonococcal urethritis in adults caused by Ureaplasma urealyticum or Chlamydia trachomatis Relapsing fever due to Borrelia recurrentis Chancroid caused by Haemophilus ducreyi Plague due to Yersinia pestis Tularemia due to Francisella tularensis Cholera caused by Vibrio cholerae Campylobacter fetus infections cause by Campylobacter fetus Brucellosis due to Brucella species (in conjunction with streptomycin); Bartonellosis due to Bartonella bacilliformis Granuloma inguinale caused by Calymmatobacterium granulomatis Demeclocycline hydrochloride, USP is indicated for treatment of infections by the following gram-negative microorganisms, when bacteriologic testing indicates appropriate susceptibility to the drug: Escherichia coli Enterobacter aerogenes Shigella species Acinetobacter species Respiratory tract infections caused by Haemophilus influenzae Respiratory tract and urinary tract infections caused by Klebsiella species Demeclocycline hydrochloride, USP is indicated for treatment of infections caused by the following gram-positive microorganisms, when bacteriologic testing indicates appropriate susceptibility to the drug: Upper respiratory infections caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae Skin and skin structure infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus. (Note: Tetracyclines, including demeclocycline, are not the drugs of choice in the treatment of any type of staphylococcal infection). When penicillin is contraindicated, tetracyclines, including demeclocycline hydrochloride, are alternative drugs in the treatment of the following infections: Uncomplicated urethritis in men due to Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and for the treatment of other uncomplicated gonococcal infections Infections in women caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae Syphilis caused by Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum Yaws caused by Treponema pallidum subspecies pertenue Listeriosis due to Listeria monocytogenes Anthrax due to Bacillus anthracis Vincent's infection caused by Fusobacterium fusiforme Actinomycosis caused by Actinomyces israelii Clostridial diseases caused by Clostridium species In acute intestinal amebiasis, demeclocycline hydrochloride may be a useful adjunct to amebicides. In severe acne, demeclocycline hydrochloride may be a useful adjunctive therapy. To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of demeclocycline hydrochloride tablets and other antibacterial drugs, demeclocycline hydrochloride tablets should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.

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This drug is contraindicated in persons who have shown hypersensitivity to any of the tetracyclines or any of the components of the product formulation.Last reviewed on RxList: 10/22/2012
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

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In case of overdosage, discontinue medication, treat symptomatically and institute supportive measures. Tetracyclines are not removed in significant quantities by hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis.

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Demeclocycline hydrochloride tablets USP, 150 mg, are round, convex, red, film coated tablets, engraved with D11 on one side, and are supplied as follows: Bottles of 100 NDC 64720-334-10 Demeclocycline hydrochloride tablets USP, 300 mg, are round, convex, red, film coated tablets, engraved with D12 on one side, and are supplied as follows: Bottles of 48 NDC 64720-335-48 Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F) [See USP Controlled Room Temperature]. Dispense in a tight container as defined in the USP. KEEP THIS AND ALL DRUGS OUT OF THE REACH OF CHILDREN. Manufactured by: Patheon Puerto Rico, Inc. Manati, Puerto Rico 00674, USA. Distributed by: CorePharma, LLC Middlesex, NJ 08846. Rev. August, 2012. Last reviewed on RxList: 10/22/2012
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

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General Pseudotumor cerebri (benign intracranial hypertension) in adults has been associated with the use of tetracyclines. The usual clinical manifestations are headache and blurred vision. Bulging fontanels have been associated with the use of tetracyclines in infants. While both of these conditions and related symptoms usually resolve soon after discontinuation of the tetracycline, the possibility for permanent sequelae exists. As with other antibiotic preparations, use of this drug may result in overgrowth of nonsusceptible organisms, including fungi. If superinfection occurs, the antibiotic should be discontinued and appropriate therapy should be instituted. Incision and drainage or other surgical procedures should be performed in conjunction with antibiotic therapy, when indicated. Prescribing demeclocycline hydrochloride tablets in the absence of a proven or strongly suspected bacterial infection or a prophylactic indication is unlikely to provide benefit to the patient and increases the risk of the development of drug-resistant bacteria. Laboratory Tests In venereal diseases when coexistent syphilis is suspected, darkfield examination should be done before treatment is started and the blood serology repeated monthly for at least 4 months. In long-term therapy, periodic laboratory evaluation of organ systems, including hematopoietic, renal, and hepatic, should be performed. All patients with gonorrhea should have a serologic test for syphilis at the time of diagnosis. Patients treated with demeclocycline hydrochloride should have a follow-up serologic test for syphilis after 3 months. Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility Long-term studies in animals to evaluate carcinogenic potential of demeclocycline hydrochloride have not been conducted. However, there has been evidence of oncogenic activity in rats in studies with the related antibiotics oxytetracycline (adrenal and pituitary tumors) and minocycline (thyroid tumors). Although mutagenicity studies of demeclocycline hydrochloride have not been conducted, positive results in in vitro mammalian cell assays (i.e., mouse lymphoma and Chinese hamster lung cells) have been reported for related antibiotics (tetracyclines hydrochloride and oxytetracycline). (See WARNINGS and Animal Pharmacology And Animal Toxicology.) Demeclocycline hydrochloride had no effect on fertility when administered in the diet to male and female rats at a daily intake of 45 times the human dose. Pregnancy Teratogenic effects Pregnancy Category D (See WARNINGS.) Result of animal studies indicate that tetracyclines cross the placenta, are found in fetal tissues, and can have toxic effects on the developing fetus (often related to retardation of skeletal development). Evidence of embryotoxicity has been noted in animals treated early in pregnancy. Nonteratogenic effects (See WARNINGS.) Labor and Delivery The effect of tetracyclines on labor and delivery is unknown. Nursing Mothers Tetracyclines are excreted in human milk. Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from the tetracyclines, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother (See WARNINGS.) Pediatric Use Not for use in patients younger than eight years of age. See WARNINGS, PRECAUTIONS (General subsection) and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION Last reviewed on RxList: 10/22/2012
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

Source: http://www.rxlist.com

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