Drug: Catapres

Catapres (clonidine hydrochloride, USP) is a centrally acting alpha-agonist hypotensive agent available as tablets for oral administration in three dosage strengths: 0.1 mg, 0.2 mg and 0.3 mg. The 0.1 mg tablet is equivalent to 0.087 mg of the free base. The inactive ingredients are colloidal silicon dioxide, corn starch, dibasic calcium phosphate, FD&C Yellow No. 6, gelatin, glycerin, lactose, and magnesium stearate. The Catapres (clonidine) 0.1 mg tablet also contains FD&C Blue No.1 and FD&C Red No.3. Clonidine hydrochloride is an imidazoline derivative and exists as a mesomeric compound. The chemical name is 2-(2,6-dichlorophenylamino)-2-imidazoline hydrochloride. The following is the structural formula:
C9H9Cl2N3•HCl       Mol. Wt. 266.56 Clonidine hydrochloride is an odorless, bitter, white, crystalline substance soluble in water and alcohol.

Source: http://www.rxlist.com

Most adverse effects are mild and tend to diminish with continued therapy. The most frequent (which appear to be dose-related) are dry mouth, occurring in about 40 of 100 patients; drowsiness, about 33 in 100; dizziness, about 16 in 100; constipation and sedation, each about 10 in 100. The following less frequent adverse experiences have also been reported in patients receiving Catapres (clonidine) tablets, but in many cases patients were receiving concomitant medication and a causal relationship has not been established. Body as a Whole: Fatigue, fever, headache, pallor, weakness, and withdrawal syndrome. Also reported were a weakly positive Coombs' test and increased sensitivity to alcohol. Cardiovascular: Bradycardia, congestive heart failure, electrocardiographic abnormalities (i.e.,sinus node arrest, junctional bradycardia, high degree AV block and arrhythmias), orthostatic symptoms, palpitations, Raynaud's phenomenon, syncope, and tachycardia. Cases of sinus bradycardia and atrioventricular block have been reported, both with and without the use of concomitant digitalis. Central Nervous System: Agitation, anxiety, delirium, delusional perception, hallucinations (including visual and auditory), insomnia, mental depression, nervousness, other behavioral changes, paresthesia, restlessness, sleep disorder, and vivid dreams or nightmares. Dermatological: Alopecia, angioneurotic edema, hives, pruritus, rash, and urticaria. Gastrointestinal: Abdominal pain, anorexia, constipation, hepatitis, malaise, mild transient abnormalities in liver function tests, nausea, parotitis, pseudo-obstruction (including colonic pseudo-obstruction), salivary gland pain, and vomiting. Genitourinary: Decreased sexual activity, difficulty in micturition, erectile dysfunction, loss of libido, nocturia, and urinary retention. Hematologic: Thrombocytopenia. Metabolic: Gynecomastia, transient elevation of blood glucose or serum creatine phosphokinase, and weight gain. Musculoskeletal: Leg cramps and muscle or joint pain. Oro-otolaryngeal: Dryness of the nasal mucosa. Ophthalmological: Accommodation disorder, blurred vision, burning of the eyes, decreased lacrimation, and dryness of eyes. Read the Catapres (clonidine) Side Effects Center for a complete guide to possible side effectsLearn More »

Source: http://www.rxlist.com

Adults The dose of Catapres (clonidine hydrochloride, USP) tablets must be adjusted according to the patient's individual blood pressure response. The following is a general guide to its administration. Initial Dose 0.1 mg tablet twice daily (morning and bedtime). Elderly patients may benefit from a lower initial dose. Maintenance Dose Further increments of 0.1 mg per day may be made at weekly intervals if necessary until the desired response is achieved. Taking the larger portion of the oral daily dose at bedtime may minimize transient adjustment effects of dry mouth and drowsiness. The therapeutic doses most commonly employed have ranged from 0.2 mg to 0.6 mg per day given in divided doses. Studies have indicated that 2.4 mg is the maximum effective daily dose, but doses as high as this have rarely been employed. Renal Impairment Dosage must be adjusted according to the degree of impairment, and patients should be carefully monitored. Since only a minimal amount of clonidine is removed during routine hemodialysis, there is no need to give supplemental clonidine following dialysis.

Source: http://www.rxlist.com

Clonidine may potentiate the CNS-depressive effects of alcohol, barbiturates or other sedating drugs. If a patient receiving clonidine hydrochloride is also taking tricyclic antidepressants, the hypotensive effect of clonidine may be reduced, necessitating an increase in the clonidine dose. Monitor heart rate in patients receiving clonidine concomitantly with agents known to affect sinus node function or AV nodal conduction, e.g., digitalis, calcium channel blockers, and beta-blockers. Sinus bradycardia resulting in hospitalization and pacemaker insertion has been reported in association with the use of clonidine concomitantly with diltiazem or verapamil. Amitriptyline in combination with clonidine enhances the manifestation of corneal lesions in rats (see Toxicology). Toxicology In several studies with oral clonidine hydrochloride, a dose-dependent increase in the incidence and severity of spontaneous retinal degeneration was seen in albino rats treated for six months or longer. Tissue distribution studies in dogs and monkeys showed a concentration of clonidine in the choroid. In view of the retinal degeneration seen in rats, eye examinations were performed during clinical trials in 908 patients before, and periodically after, the start of clonidine therapy. In 353 of these 908 patients, the eye examinations were carried out over periods of 24 months or longer. Except for some dryness of the eyes, no drug-related abnormal ophthalmological findings were recorded and, according to specialized tests such as electroretinography and macular dazzle, retinal function was unchanged. In combination with amitriptyline, clonidine hydrochloride administration led to the development of corneal lesions in rats within 5 days.Last reviewed on RxList: 1/24/2011
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

Source: http://www.rxlist.com

Catapres (clonidine hydrochloride, USP) tablets are indicated in the treatment of hypertension. Catapres (clonidine) tablets may be employed alone or concomitantly with other antihypertensive agents.

Source: http://www.rxlist.com

Catapres (clonidine) tablets should not be used in patients with known hypersensitivity to clonidine (see PRECAUTIONS). Last reviewed on RxList: 1/24/2011
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

Source: http://www.rxlist.com

Hypertension may develop early and may be followed by hypotension, bradycardia, respiratory depression, hypothermia, drowsiness, decreased or absent reflexes, weakness, irritability and miosis. The frequency of CNS depression may be higher in children than adults. Large overdoses may result in reversible cardiac conduction defects or dysrhythmias, apnea, coma and seizures. Signs and symptoms of overdose generally occur within 30 minutes to two hours after exposure. As little as 0.1 mg of clonidine has produced signs of toxicity in children. There is no specific antidote for clonidine overdosage. Clonidine overdosage may result in the rapid development of CNS depression; therefore, induction of vomiting with ipecac syrup is not recommended. Gastric lavage may be indicated following recent and/or large ingestions. Administration of activated charcoal and/or a cathartic may be beneficial. Supportive care may include atropine sulfate for bradycardia, intravenous fluids and/or vasopressor agents for hypotension and vasodilators for hypertension. Naloxone may be a useful adjunct for the management of clonidine-induced respiratory depression, hypotension and/or coma; blood pressure should be monitored since the administration of naloxone has occasionally resulted in paradoxical hypertension. Tolazoline administration has yielded inconsistent results and is not recommended as first-line therapy. Dialysis is not likely to significantly enhance the elimination of clonidine. The largest overdose reported to date involved a 28-year old male who ingested 100 mg of clonidine hydrochloride powder. This patient developed hypertension followed by hypotension, bradycardia, apnea, hallucinations, semicoma, and premature ventricular contractions. The patient fully recovered after intensive treatment. Plasma clonidine levels were 60 ng/ml after 1 hour, 190 ng/ml after 1.5 hours, 370 ng/ml after 2 hours, and 120 ng/ml after 5.5 and 6.5 hours. In mice and rats, the oral LD of clonidine is 206 and 465 mg/kg, respectively.

Source: http://www.rxlist.com

Catapres (clonidine hydrochloride, USP) tablets are supplied as follows:   Dose (mg) Color Marking Bottle of 100 0.1 Tan BI 6 NDC 0597-0006-01 0.2 Orange BI 7 NDC 0597-0007-01 0.3 Peach BI 11 NDC 0597-0011-01 Store at 25°C (77°F); excursions permitted to 15°-30°C (59°-86°F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature]. Dispense in tight, light-resistant container. Distributed by: Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Ridgefield, CT 06877 USA. Manufactured by: Boehringer Ingelheim Promeco S.A. de C.V., Mexico City, Mexico. Licensed from: Boehringer Ingelheim International GmbH. Address medical inquiries to: (800) 542-6257 or (800) 459-9906.Last reviewed on RxList: 1/24/2011
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

Source: http://www.rxlist.com

General In patients who have developed localized contact sensitization to Catapres-TTS (clonidine), continuation of Catapres-TTS or substitution of oral clonidine hydrochloride therapy may be associated with the development of a generalized skin rash. In patients who develop an allergic reaction to Catapres-TTS, substitution of oral clonidine hydrochloride may also elicit an allergic reaction (including generalized rash, urticaria, or angioedema). Catapres (clonidine) tablets should be used with caution in patients with severe coronary insufficiency, conduction disturbances, recent myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular disease or chronic renal failure. Perioperative Use Administration of Catapres (clonidine) tablets should be continued to within four hours of surgery and resumed as soon as possible thereafter. Blood pressure should be carefully monitored during surgery and additional measures to control blood pressure should be available if required. Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility Chronic dietary administration of clonidine was not carcinogenic to rats (132 weeks) or mice (78 weeks) dosed, respectively, at up to 46 or 70 times the maximum recommended daily human dose as mg/kg (9 or 6 times the MRDHD on a mg/m basis). There was no evidence of genotoxicity in the Ames test for mutagenicity or mouse micronucleus test for clastogenicity. Fertility of male or female rats was unaffected by clonidine doses as high as 150 mcg/kg (approximately 3 times MRDHD). In a separate experiment, fertility of female rats appeared to be affected at dose levels of 500 to 2000 mcg/kg (10 to 40 times the oral MRDHD on a mg/kg basis; 2 to 8 times the MRDHD on a mg/m basis). Pregnancy Teratogenic Effects - Pregnancy Category C. Reproduction studies performed in rabbits at doses up to approximately 3 times the oral maximum recommended daily human dose (MRDHD) of Catapres (clonidine hydrochloride, USP) tablets produced no evidence of a teratogenic or embryotoxic potential in rabbits. In rats, however, doses as low as 1/3 the oral MRDHD (1/15 the MRDHD on a mg/m basis) of clonidine were associated with increased resorptions in a study in which dams were treated continuously from 2 months prior to mating. Increased resorptions were not associated with treatment at the same time or at higher dose levels (up to 3 times the oral MRDHD) when the dams were treated on gestation days 6-15. Increases in resorption were observed at much higher dose levels (40 times the oral MRDHD on a mg/kg basis; 4 to 8 times the MRDHD on a mg/m basis) in mice and rats treated on gestation days 1-14 (lowest dose employed in the study was 500 mcg/kg). No adequate, well-controlled studies have been conducted in pregnant women. Because animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response, this drug should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed. Nursing Mothers As clonidine hydrochloride is excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised when Catapres (clonidine hydrochloride, USP) tablets are administered to a nursing woman. Pediatric Use Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established in adequate and well-controlled trials (see WARNINGS, Withdrawal). Last reviewed on RxList: 1/24/2011
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

Source: http://www.rxlist.com

Health Services in

Drug Database Online

Welcome to Senior Healthcare Matters an online drug guide and dictionary, here you can get drug information and definitaions for most popular pharmaceutical and medicinal drugs, and specifically Catapres. Find what medications you are taking today.