Drug: Ciloxan Ophthalmic Solution

CILOXAN® (ciprofloxacin HCL ophthalmic solution) is a synthetic, sterile, multiple dose, antimicrobial for topical use. Ciprofloxacin is a fluoroquinolone antibacterial active against a broad spectrum of gram positive and gram-negative ocular pathogens. It is available as the monohydrochloride monohydrate salt of 1-cyclopropyl-6-fluoro-1,4-dihydro-4-oxo-7-(1-piperazinyl)-3-quinoline-carboxylic acid. It is a faint to light yellow crystalline powder with a molecular weight of 385.8. Its empirical formula is C17H18FN3O3·HCl·H2O and its chemical structure is as follows: Ciprofloxacin differs from other quinolones in that it has a fluorine atom at the 6-position, a piperazine moiety at the 7-position, and a cyclopropyl ring at the 1-position. Each mL of CILOXAN Ophthalmic Solution (ciprofloxacin hcl ophthalmic solution) contains: Active: ciprofloxacin HCl 3.5 mg equivalent to 3 mg base. Preservative: benzalkonium chloride 0.006%. Inactives: sodium acetate, acetic acid, mannitol 4.6%, edetate disodium 0.05%, hydrochloric acid and/or sodium hydroxide (to adjust pH) and Purified Water. The pH is approximately 4.5 and the osmolality is approximately 300 mOsm.

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The most frequently reported drug related adverse reaction was local burning or discomfort. In corneal ulcer studies with frequent administration of the drug, white crystalline precipitates were seen in approximately 17% of patients (SEE PRECAUTIONS ). Other reactions occurring in less than 10% of patients included lid margin crusting, crystals/scales, foreign body sensation, itching, conjunctival hyperemia and a bad taste following instillation. Additional events occurring in less than 1% of patients included corneal staining, keratopathy/keratitis, allergic reactions, lid edema, tearing, photophobia, corneal infiltrates, nausea and decreased vision. Read the Ciloxan Ophthalmic Solution (ciprofloxacin hcl ophthalmic solution) Side Effects Center for a complete guide to possible side effectsLearn More »

Source: http://www.rxlist.com

Corneal Ulcers: The recommended dosage regimen for the treatment of corneal ulcers is two drops into the affected eye every 15 minutes for the first six hours and then two drops into the affected eye every 30 minutes for the remainder of the first day. On the second day, instill two drops in the affected eye hourly. On the third through the fourteenth day, place two drops in the affected eye every four hours. Treatment may be continued after 14 days if corneal re-epithelialization has not occurred. Bacterial Conjunctivitis: The recommended dosage regimen for the treatment of bacterial conjunctivitis is one or two drops instilled into the conjunctival sac(s) every two hours while awake for two days and one or two drops every four hours while awake for the next five days.

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Specific drug interaction studies have not been conducted with ophthalmic ciprofloxacin. However, the systemic administration of some quinolones has been shown to elevate plasma concentrations of theophylline, interfere with the metabolism of caffeine, enhance the effects of the oral anticoagulant, warfarin, and its derivatives, and has been associated with transient elevations in serum creatinine in patients receiving cyclosporine concomitantly. Last reviewed on RxList: 3/28/2006
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

Source: http://www.rxlist.com

CILOXAN Ophthalmic Solution is indicated for the treatment of infections caused by susceptible strains of the designated microorganisms in the conditions listed below: Corneal Ulcers Pseudomonas aeruginosa Serratia marcescens * Staphylococcus aureus Staphylococcus epidermidis Streptococcus pneumoniae Streptococcus (Viridans Group) * Conjunctivitis Haemophilus influenzae Staphylococcus aureus Staphylococcus epidermidis Streptococcus pneumoniae *Efficacy for this organism was studied in fewer than 10 infections.

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A history of hypersensitivity to ciprofloxacin or any other component of the medication is a contraindication to its use. A history of hypersensitivity to other quinolones may also contraindicate the use of ciprofloxacin. Last reviewed on RxList: 3/28/2006
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

Source: http://www.rxlist.com

A topical overdose of CILOXAN Ophthalmic Solution may be flushed from the eye(s) with warm tap water.

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As a sterile ophthalmic solution in Alcons DROP-TAINERÃ? dispensing system consisting of a natural low density polyethylene bottle and dispensing plug and tan polypropylene closure. Tamper evidence is provided with a shrink band around the closure and neck area of the package. 2.5 mL in 8 mL bottle - NDC 0065-0656-25 5 mL in 8 mL bottle - NDC 0065-0656-05 10 mL in 10 mL bottle - NDC 0065-0656-10 STORAGE: Store at 2°- 25°C (36°- 77°F). Protect from light. ANIMAL PHARMACOLOGY Ciprofloxacin and related drugs have been shown to cause arthropathy in immature animals of most species tested following oral administration. However, a one-month topical ocular study using immature Beagle dogs did not demonstrate any articular lesions. Rx only U.S. Patent No. 4,670,444
AlconÃ? Pharmaceuticals
ALCON LABORATORIES, INC. Fort Worth, Texas 76134 USA
Revised: September 2004Ã?2003 Alcon, Inc
FDA revision date:2/07/06Last reviewed on RxList: 3/28/2006
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

Source: http://www.rxlist.com

General: As with other antibacterial preparations, prolonged use of ciprofloxacin may result in overgrowth of nonsusceptible organisms, including fungi. If superinfection occurs, appropriate therapy should be initiated. Whenever clinical judgment dictates, the patient should be examined with the aid of magnification, such as slit lamp biomicroscopy and, where appropriate, fluorescein staining. Ciprofloxacin should be discontinued at the first appearance of a skin rash or any other sign of hypersensitivity reaction. In clinical studies of patients with bacterial corneal ulcer, a white crystalline precipitate located in the superficial portion of the corneal defect was observed in 35 (16.6%) of 210 patients. The onset of the precipitate was within 24 hours to 7 days after starting therapy. In one patient, the precipitate was immediately irrigated out upon its appearance. In 17 patients, resolution of the precipitate was seen in 1 to 8 days (seven within the first 24-72 hours), in five patients, resolution was noted in 10-13 days. In nine patients, exact resolution days were unavailable; however, at follow-up examinations, 18-44 days after onset of the event, complete resolution of the precipitate was noted. In three patients, outcome information was unavailable. The precipitate did not preclude continued use of ciprofloxacin, nor did it adversely affect the clinical course of the ulcer or visual outcome. (SEE ADVERSE REACTIONS ). Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility Eight in vitro mutagenicity tests have been conducted with ciprofloxacin and the test results are listed below: Salmonella/Microsome Test (Negative) E. coli DNA Repair Assay (Negative) Mouse Lymphoma Cell Forward Mutation Assay (Positive) Chinese Hamster V79 Cell HGPRT Test (Negative) Syrian Hamster Embryo Cell Transformation Assay (Negative) Saccharomyces cerevisiae Point Mutation Assay (Negative) Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mitotic Crossover and Gene Conversion Assay (Negative) Rat Hepatocyte DNA Repair Assay (Positive) Thus, two of the eight tests were positive, but the results of the following three in vivo test systems gave negative results: Rat Hepatocyte DNA Repair Assay Micronucleus Test (Mice) Dominant Lethal Test (Mice). Long term carcinogenicity studies in mice and rats have been completed. After daily oral dosing for up to two years, there is no evidence that ciprofloxacin had any carcinogenic or tumorigenic effects in these species. Pregnancy Pregnancy Category C. Reproduction studies have been performed in rats and mice at doses up to six times the usual daily human oral dose and have revealed no evidence of impaired fertility or harm to the fetus due to ciprofloxacin. In rabbits, as with most antimicrobial agents, ciprofloxacin (30 and 100 mg/kg orally) produced gastrointestinal disturbances resulting in maternal weight loss and an increased incidence of abortion. No teratogenicity was observed at either dose. After intravenous administration, at doses up to 20 mg/kg, no maternal toxicity was produced and no embryotoxicity or teratogenicity was observed. There are no adequate and well controlled studies in pregnant women. CILOXAN Ophthalmic Solutionshould be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus. Nursing Mothers: It is not known whether topically applied ciprofloxacin is excreted in human milk. However, it is known that orally administered ciprofloxacin is excreted in the milk of lactating rats and oral ciprofloxacin has been reported in human breast milk after a single 500 mg dose. Caution should be exercised when CILOXAN Ophthalmic Solution (ciprofloxacin hcl ophthalmic solution) is administered to a nursing mother. Pediatric Use: Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients below the age of 1 year have not been established. Although ciprofloxacin and other quinolones cause arthropathy in immature animals after oral administration, topical ocular administration of ciprofloxacin to immature animals did not cause any arthropathy and there is no evidence that the ophthalmic dosage form has any effect on the weight bearing joints. Geriatric Use: No overall differences in safety or effectiveness have been observed between elderly and younger patients. Last reviewed on RxList: 3/28/2006
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

Source: http://www.rxlist.com

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