Drug: Atacand HCT

ATACAND HCT (candesartan cilexetil-hydrochlorothiazide) combines an angiotensin II receptor (type AT1) antagonist and a diuretic, hydrochlorothiazide. Candesartan cilexetil, a nonpeptide, is chemically described as (±)-1-Hydroxyethyl 2-ethoxy-1-[p-(o-1Htetrazol-5-ylphenyl)benzyl]-7-benzimidazolecarboxylate, cyclohexyl carbonate (ester). Its empirical formula is C33H34N6O6, and its structural formula is Candesartan cilexetil is a white to off-white powder with a molecular weight of 610.67. It is practically insoluble in water and sparingly soluble in methanol. Candesartan cilexetil is a racemic mixture containing one chiral center at the cyclohexyloxycarbonyloxy ethyl ester group. Following oral administration, candesartan cilexetil undergoes hydrolysis at the ester link to form the active drug, candesartan, which is achiral. Hydrochlorothiazide is 6-chloro-3,4-dihydro-2H-1,2,4-benzothiadiazine-7-sulfonamide 1,1-dioxide. Its empirical formula is C7H8ClN3O4S2 and its structural formula is Hydrochlorothiazide is a white, or practically white, crystalline powder with a molecular weight of 297.72, which is slightly soluble in water, but freely soluble in sodium hydroxide solution. ATACAND HCT is available for oral administration in three tablet strengths of candesartan cilexetil and hydrochlorothiazide. ATACAND HCT 16-12.5 contains 16 mg of candesartan cilexetil and 12.5 mg of hydrochlorothiazide. ATACAND HCT 32-12.5 contains 32 mg of candesartan cilexetil and 12.5 mg of hydrochlorothiazide. ATACAND HCT 32–25 contains 32 mg of candesartan cilexetil and 25 mg of hydrochlorothiazide. The inactive ingredients of the tablets are carboxymethylcellulose calcium, hydroxypropyl cellulose, lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate, corn starch, polyethylene glycol 8000, and ferric oxide (yellow). Ferric oxide (reddish brown) is also added to the 16-12.5 mg and 32–25 mg tablets as colorant.

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Candesartan Cilexetil-Hydrochlorothiazide ATACAND HCT has been evaluated for safety in more than 2800 patients treated for hypertension. More than 750 of these patients were studied for at least six months and more than 500 patients were treated for at least one year. Adverse experiences have generally been mild and transient in nature and have only infrequently required discontinuation of therapy. The overall incidence of adverse events reported with ATACAND HCT was comparable to placebo. The overall frequency of adverse experiences was not related to dose, age, gender, or race. In placebo-controlled trials that included 1089 patients treated with various combinations of candesartan cilexetil (doses of 2-32 mg) and hydrochlorothiazide (doses of 6.25-25 mg) and 592 patients treated with placebo, adverse events, whether or not attributed to treatment, occurring in greater than 2% of patients treated with ATACAND HCT and that were more frequent for ATACAND HCT than placebo were: Respiratory System Disorder: upper respiratory tract infection (3.6% vs 3.0%); Body as a Whole: back pain (3.3% vs 2.4%); influenza-like symptoms (2.5% vs 1.9%); Central/Peripheral Nervous System: dizziness (2.9% vs 1.2%). Post-Marketing Experience The following have been very rarely reported in post-marketing experience with candesartan cilexetil: Digestive: Abnormal hepatic function and hepatitis. Hematologic: Neutropenia, leukopenia, and agranulocytosis. Immunologic: Angioedema Metabolic and Nutritional Disorders: Hyperkalemia, hyponatremia. Respiratory System Disorders: Cough Skin and Appendages Disorders: Pruritus, rash and urticaria. Rare reports of rhabdomyolysis have been reported in patients receiving angiotensin II receptor blockers. Hydrochlorothiazide Other adverse experiences that have been reported with hydrochlorothiazide, without regard to causality, are listed below: Gastrointestinal: pancreatitis, jaundice (intrahepatic cholestatic jaundice), sialadenitis, cramping, constipation, gastric irritation, anorexia Hematologic: aplastic anemia, agranulocytosis, leukopenia, hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia Hypersensitivity: anaphylactic reactions, necrotizing angiitis (vasculitis and cutaneous vasculitis), respiratory distress including pneumonitis and pulmonary edema, photosensitivity, urticaria, purpura Musculoskeletal: muscle spasm Skin: erythema multiforme including Stevens-Johnson syndrome, exfoliative dermatitis including toxic epidermal necrolysis, alopecia Special Senses: transient blurred vision, xanthopsia Urogenital: impotence Read the Atacand HCT (candesartan cilexetil-hydrochlorothiazide) Side Effects Center for a complete guide to possible side effectsLearn More »

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The usual recommended starting dose of candesartan cilexetil is 16 mg once daily when it is used as monotherapy in patients who are not volume depleted. ATACAND can be administered once or twice daily with total daily doses ranging from 8 mg to 32 mg. Patients requiring further reduction in blood pressure should be titrated to 32 mg. Doses larger than 32 mg do not appear to have a greater blood pressure lowering effect. Hydrochlorothiazide is effective in doses of 12.5 to 50 mg once daily. Use in Renal Impairment: Dosing recommendations for ATACAND HCT in patients with creatinine clearance < 30 mg/min cannot be provided (see Special Populations, Renal Insufficiency). Use in moderate to severe Hepatic Impairment: ATACAND HCT is not recommended for initiation because the appropriate starting dose, 8 mg, cannot be given (see Special Populations, Hepatic Insufficiency). Replacement Therapy The combination may be substituted for the titrated components. Dose Titration by Clinical Effect A patient whose blood pressure is not controlled on 25 mg of hydrochlorothiazide once daily can expect an incremental effect from ATACAND HCT 16-12.5 mg. A patient whose blood pressure is controlled on 25 mg of hydrochlorothiazide but is experiencing decreases in serum potassium can expect the same or incremental blood pressure effects from ATACAND HCT 16-12.5 mg and serum potassium may improve. A patient whose blood pressure is not controlled on 32 mg of ATACAND can expect incremental blood pressure effects from ATACAND HCT 32-12.5 mg and then 32-25 mg. The maximal antihypertensive effect of any dose of ATACAND HCT can be expected within 4 weeks of initiating that dose. ATACAND HCT may be administered with other antihypertensive agents. ATACAND HCT may be administered with or without food.

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Because candesartan is not significantly metabolized by the cytochrome P450 system and at therapeutic concentrations has no effects on P450 enzymes, interactions with drugs that inhibit or are metabolized by those enzymes would not be expected. Interactions common to both Candesartan Cilexetil and Hydrochlorothiazde Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents including Selective Cyclooxygenase-2 Inhibitors (COX-2 Inhibitors). In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function, co-administration of NSAIDs, including selective COX-2 inhibitors, with angiotensin II receptor antagonists, including candesartan, may result in deterioration of renal function, including possible acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible. Monitor renal function periodically in patients receiving candesartan and NSAID therapy. The antihypertensive effect of angiotensin II receptor antagonists, including candesartan may be attenuated by NSAIDs including selective COX-2 inhibitors. Lithium Increases in serum lithium concentrations and lithium toxicity have been reported during concomitant administration of lithium with angiotensin II receptor antagonists or hydrochlorothiazide. Monitor serum lithium levels during concomitant use. Interactions with Candesartan Cilexetil Dual Blockade of the Renin-Angiotensin System (RAS) Dual blockade of the RAS with angiotensin receptor blockers, ACE inhibitors, or aliskiren is associated with increased risks of hypotension, hyperkalemia, and changes in renal function (including acute renal failure) compared to monotherapy. Closely monitor blood pressure, renal function and electrolytes in patients on ATACAND HCT and other agents that affect the RAS. Do not co-administer aliskiren with ATACAND HCT in patients with diabetes. Avoid use of aliskiren with ATACAND HCT in patients with renal impairment (GFR < 60 ml/min) (see CONTRAINDICATIONS). Interactions with Hydrochlorothiazide Alcohol, barbiturates, or narcotics - Potentiation of orthostatic hypotension may occur. Antidiabetic drugs (oral agents and insulin) - Dosage adjustment of the antidiabetic drug may be required. Ion Exchange resins -Single doses of either cholestyramine or colestipol resins bind the hydrochlorothiazide and reduce its absorption from the gastrointestinal tract by up to 85% and 43%, respectively. Stagger the dosage of hydrochlorothiazide and ion exchange resins such that hydrochlorothiazide is administered at least 4 hours before or 4-6 hours after the administration of resins. Skeletal muscle relaxants, nondepolarizing (e.g., tubocurarine) -Possible increased responsiveness to muscle relaxants such as curare derivatives. Digitalis: Thiazide-induced hypokalemia or hypomagnesemia may predispose to digoxin toxicity.Read the Atacand HCT Drug Interactions Center for a complete guide to possible interactions Learn More »

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ATACAND HCT is indicated for the treatment of hypertension, to lower blood pressure. Lowering blood pressure reduces the risk of fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular events, primarily strokes and myocardial infarctions. These benefits have been seen in controlled trials of antihypertensive drugs from a wide variety of pharmacologic classes including the class to which this drug principally belongs. There are no controlled trials demonstrating risk reduction with ATACAND HCT. Control of high blood pressure should be part of comprehensive cardiovascular risk management, including, as appropriate, lipid control, diabetes management, antithrombotic therapy, smoking cessation, exercise, and limited sodium intake. Many patients will require more than one drug to achieve blood pressure goals. For specific advice on goals and management, see published guidelines, such as those of the National High Blood Pressure Education Program's Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC). Numerous antihypertensive drugs, from a variety of pharmacologic classes and with different mechanisms of action, have been shown in randomized controlled trials to reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and it can be concluded that it is blood pressure reduction, and not some other pharmacologic property of the drugs, that is largely responsible for those benefits. The largest and most consistent cardiovascular outcome benefit has been a reduction in the risk of stroke, but reductions in myocardial infarction and cardiovascular mortality also have been seen regularly. Elevated systolic or diastolic pressure causes increased cardiovascular risk, and the absolute risk increase per mmHg is greater at higher blood pressures, so that even modest reductions of severe hypertension can provide substantial benefit. Relative risk reduction from blood pressure reduction is similar across populations with varying absolute risk, so the absolute benefit is greater in patients who are at higher risk independent of their hypertension (for example, patients with diabetes or hyperlipidemia), and such patients would be expected to benefit from more aggressive treatment to a lower blood pressure goal. Some antihypertensive drugs have smaller blood pressure effects (as monotherapy) in black patients, and many antihypertensive drugs have additional approved indications and effects (e.g., on angina, heart failure, or diabetic kidney disease). These considerations may guide selection of therapy. This fixed dose combination is not indicated for initial therapy (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).

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ATACAND HCT is contraindicated in patients who are hypersensitive to candesartan, to hydrochlorothiazide or to other sulfonamide-derived drugs. Do not co-administer aliskiren with ATACAND HCT in patients with diabetes (see PRECAUTIONS: DRUG INTERACTIONS). ATACAND HCT is contraindicated in patients with anuria. Last reviewed on RxList: 2/20/2015
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

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Candesartan Cilexetil-Hydrochlorothiazide No lethality was observed in acute toxicity studies in mice, rats and dogs given single oral doses of up to 2000 mg/kg of candesartan cilexetil or in rats given single oral doses of up to 2000 mg/kg of candesartan cilexetil in combination with 1000 mg/kg of hydrochlorothiazide. In mice given single oral doses of the primary metabolite, candesartan, the minimum lethal dose was greater than 1000 mg/kg but less than 2000 mg/kg. Limited data are available in regard to overdosage with candesartan cilexetil in humans. The most likely manifestations of overdosage with candesartan cilexetil would be hypotension, dizziness, and tachycardia; bradycardia could occur from parasympathetic (vagal) stimulation. If symptomatic hypotension should occur, supportive treatment should be initiated. For hydrochlorothiazide, the most common signs and symptoms observed are those caused by electrolyte depletion (hypokalemia, hypochloremia, hyponatremia) and dehydration resulting from excessive diuresis. If digitalis has also been administered, hypokalemia may accentuate cardiac arrhythmias. Candesartan cannot be removed by hemodialysis. The degree to which hydrochlorothiazide is removed by hemodialysis has not been established. Treatment To obtain up-to-date information about the treatment of overdose, consult your Regional Poison Control Center. Telephone numbers of certified poison control centers are listed in the Physicians’ Desk Reference (PDR). In managing overdose, consider the possibilities of multiple-drug overdoses, drug-drug interactions, and altered pharmacokinetics in your patient.

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No. 3825 — Tablets ATACAND HCT 16-12.5, are peach, oval, biconvex, non-film-coated tablets, scored on both sides and coded with ACS on one side. They are supplied as follows: NDC 0186-0162-28 unit dose packages of 100.
NDC 0186-0162-54 unit of use bottles of 90. No. 3826 — Tablets ATACAND HCT 32-12.5, are yellow, oval, biconvex, non-film-coated tablets, scored on both sides and coded with ACJ on one side. They are supplied as follows: NDC 0186-0322-28 unit dose packages of 100.
NDC 0186-0322-54 unit of use bottles of 90. No. 3899 — Tablets ATACAND HCT 32–25, are pink, oval, biconvex, non-film-coated tablets, scored on both sides and coded with ACD on one side. They are supplied as follows: NDC 0186–0324–54 unit of use bottles of 90. Storage Store at 25°C (77°F); excursions permitted to 15-30°C (59-86°F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature]. Keep container tightly closed. Manufactured under the license from: Takeda Pharmaceutical Company, Ltd. by: AstraZeneca AB, S-151 85 Södertälje, Sweden for: AstraZeneca LP, Wilmington, DE 19850. Revised: Feb 2015 Last reviewed on RxList: 2/20/2015
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

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Metabolic Disturbances Hydrochlorothiazide may alter glucose tolerance and raise serum levels of cholesterol and triglycerides. Hydrochlorothiazide may raise the serum uric acid level due to reduced clearance of uric acid and may cause or exacerbate hyperuricemia and precipitate gout in susceptible patients. Thiazides decrease urinary calcium excretion and may cause mild elevation of serum calcium. Avoid using ATACAND HCT in patients with hypercalcemia. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Thiazide diuretics have been reported to cause exacerbation or activation of systemic lupus erythematosus. Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment Of Fertility No carcinogenicity studies have been conducted with the combination of candesartan cilexetil and hydrochlorothiazide. There was no evidence of carcinogenicity when candesartan cilexetil was orally administered to mice and rats for up to 104 weeks at doses up to 100 and 1000 mg/kg/day, respectively. Rats received the drug by gavage whereas mice received the drug by dietary administration. These (maximally-tolerated) doses of candesartan cilexetil provided systemic exposures to candesartan (AUCs) that were, in mice, approximately 7 times and, in rats, more than 70 times the exposure in man at the maximum recommended daily human dose (32 mg). Two-year feeding studies in mice and rats conducted under the auspices of the National Toxicology Program (NTP) uncovered no evidence of a carcinogenic potential of hydrochlorothiazide in female mice (at doses of up to approximately 600 mg/kg/day) or in male and female rats (at doses of up to approximately 100 mg/kg/day). The NTP, however, found equivocal evidence for hepatocarcinogenicity in male mice. Candesartan cilexetil or candesartan (the active metabolite), in combination with hydrochlorothiazide, tested positive in vitro in the Chinese hamster lung (CHL) chromosomal aberration assay and mouse lymphoma mutagenicity assay. The candesartan cilexetil/hydrochlorothiazide combination tested negative for mutagenicity in bacteria (Ames test), for unscheduled DNA synthesis in rat liver, for chromosomal aberrations in rat bone marrow and for micronuclei in mouse bone marrow. Both candesartan and its O-deethyl metabolite tested positive for genotoxicity in the in vitro CHL chromosomal aberration assay. Neither compound tested positive in the Ames microbial mutagenesis assay or in the in vitro mouse lymphoma cell assay. Candesartan (but not its O-deethyl metabolite) was also evaluated in vivo in the mouse micronucleus test and in vitro in the Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) gene mutation assay, in both cases with negative results. Candesartan cilexetil was evaluated in the Ames test, the in vitro mouse lymphoma cell assay, the in vivo rat hepatocyte unscheduled DNA synthesis assay and the in vivo mouse micronucleus test, in each case with negative results. Candesartan cilexetil was not evaluated in the CHL chromosomal aberration or CHO gene mutation assays. When hydrochlorothiazide was tested alone, positive results were obtained in vitro in the CHO sister chromatid exchange (clastogenicity) and mouse lymphoma cell (mutagenicity) assays and in the Aspergillus nidulans non-disjunciton assay. Hydrochorothiazide was not genotoxic in vitro in the Ames test for point mutations and the CHO test for chromosomal aberrations, or in vivo in assays using mouse germinal cell chromosomes, Chinese hamster bone marrow chromosomes, and the Drosophila sex-linked recessive lethal trait gene. No fertility studies have been conducted with the combination of candesartan cilexetil and hydrochlorothiazide. Fertility and reproductive performance were not affected in studies with male and female rats given oral doses of up to 300 mg candesartan cilexetil/kg/day (83 times the maximum daily human dose of 32 mg on a body surface area basis). Hydrochlorothiazide had no adverse effects on the fertility of mice and rats of either sex in studies wherein these species were exposed, via their diet, to doses of up to 100 and 4 mg/kg, respectively, prior to conception and throughout gestation. Nursing Mothers It is not known whether candesartan is excreted in human milk, but candesartan has been shown to be present in rat milk. Thiazides appear in human milk. Because of the potential for adverse effects on the nursing infant, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother. Pediatric Use Neonates with a history of in utero exposure to ATACAND HCT: If oliguria or hypotension occurs, direct attention toward support of blood pressure and renal perfusion. Exchange transfusions or dialysis may be required as a means of reversing hypotension and/or substituting for disordered renal function. Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established. Last reviewed on RxList: 2/20/2015
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

Source: http://www.rxlist.com

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