Drug: Azopt

AZOPT® (brinzolamide ophthalmic suspension) 1% contains a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor formulated for multidose topical ophthalmic use. Brinzolamide is described chemically as: (R)-(+)-4-Ethylamino-2-(3-methoxypropyl)-3,4-dihydro2H-thieno [3,2-e]-1,2-thiazine-6-sulfonamide-1,1-dioxide. Its empirical formula is C12H21N3O5S3, and its structural formula is: Brinzolamide has a molecular weight of 383.5 and a melting point of about 131°C. It is a white powder, which is insoluble in water, very soluble in methanol and soluble in ethanol. AZOPT® (brinzolamide ophthalmic suspension) 1% is supplied as a sterile, aqueous suspension of brinzolamide which has been formulated to be readily suspended and slow settling, following shaking. It has a pH of approximately 7.5 and an osmolality of 300 mOsm/kg. Each mL of AZOPT® (brinzolamide ophthalmic suspension) 1% contains: Active ingredient: brinzolamide 10 mg. Preservative: Benzalkonium chloride 0.01 mg. Inactives: mannitol, carbomer 974P, tyloxapol, edetate disodium, sodium chloride, purified water, with hydrochloric acid and/or sodium hydroxide to adjust pH.

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Clinical Studies Experience Because clinical studies are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical studies of a drug cannot be directly compared to the rates in the clinical studies of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice. In clinical studies of AZOPT® (brinzolamide ophthalmic suspension) (brinzolamide ophthalmic suspension) 1%, the most frequently reported adverse events reported in 5-10% of patients were blurred vision and bitter, sour or unusual taste. Adverse events occurring in 1-5% of patients were blepharitis, dermatitis, dry eye, foreign body sensation, headache, hyperemia, ocular discharge, ocular discomfort, ocular keratitis, ocular pain, ocular pruritus and rhinitis. The following adverse reactions were reported at an incidence below 1%: allergic reactions, alopecia, chest pain, conjunctivitis, diarrhea, diplopia, dizziness, dry mouth, dyspnea, dyspepsia, eye fatigue, hypertonia, keratoconjunctivitis, keratopathy, kidney pain, lid margin crusting or sticky sensation, nausea, pharyngitis, tearing and urticaria. Read the Azopt (brinzolamide ophthalmic suspension) Side Effects Center for a complete guide to possible side effectsLearn More »

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The recommended dose is one drop of AZOPT® (brinzolamide ophthalmic suspension) 1% in the affected eye(s) three times daily. If more than one topical ophthalmic drug is being used, the drugs should be administered at least ten (10) minutes apart.

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Oral Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors There is a potential for an additive effect on the known systemic effects of carbonic anhydrase inhibition in patients receiving an oral carbonic anhydrase inhibitor and AZOPT (brinzolamide ophthalmic suspension) 1%. The concomitant administration of AZOPT (brinzolamide ophthalmic suspension) 1% and oral carbonic anhydrase inhibitors is not recommended. High-Dose Salicylate Therapy Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors may produce acid-base and electrolyte alterations. These alterations were not reported in the clinical trials with brinzolamide. However, in patients treated with oral carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, rare instances of acid-base alterations have occurred with high-dose salicylate therapy. Therefore, the potential for such drug interactions should be considered in patients receiving AZOPT® (brinzolamide ophthalmic suspension) 1%. Read the Azopt Drug Interactions Center for a complete guide to possible interactions Learn More »

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AZOPT® (brinzolamide ophthalmic suspension) (brinzolamide ophthalmic suspension) 1% is a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor indicated in the treatment of elevated intraocular pressure in patients with ocular hypertension or open-angle glaucoma.

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AZOPT® (brinzolamide ophthalmic suspension) (brinzolamide ophthalmic suspension) 1% is contraindicated in patients who are hypersensitive to any component of this product. Last reviewed on RxList: 4/28/2011
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

Source: http://www.rxlist.com

Although no human data are available, electrolyte imbalance, development of an acidotic state, and possible nervous system effects may occur following oral administration of an overdose. Serum electrolyte levels (particularly potassium) and blood pH levels should be monitored.

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Dosage Forms And Strengths Solution containing 10 mg/mL brinzolamide. AZOPT® (brinzolamide ophthalmic suspension) 1% is supplied in plastic DROP-TAINER® dispensers with a controlled dispensing-tip as follows: 5 mL NDC 0065-0275-05 10 mL NDC 0065-0275-10 15 mL NDC 0065-0275-15 Storage and Handling Store AZOPT® (brinzolamide ophthalmic suspension) 1% at 4-30°C (39-86°F). Shake well before use. Alcon Laboratories, Inc. Fort Worth, Texas 76134 USA. Revised: 8/2010 Last reviewed on RxList: 4/28/2011
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

Source: http://www.rxlist.com

Sulfonamide Hypersensitivity AZOPT® (brinzolamide ophthalmic suspension) (brinzolamide ophthalmic suspension) 1% is a sulfonamide and although administered topically it is absorbed systemically. Therefore, the same types of adverse reactions that are attributable to sulfonamides may occur with topical administration of AZOPT® (brinzolamide ophthalmic suspension) 1%. Fatalities have occurred, although rarely, due to severe reactions to sulfonamides including Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis, fulminant hepatic necrosis, agranulocytosis, aplastic anemia, and other blood dyscrasias. Sensitization may recur when a sulfonamide is re-administered irrespective of the route of administration. If signs of serious reactions or hypersensitivity occur, discontinue the use of this preparation. Corneal Endothelium Carbonic anhydrase activity has been observed in both the cytoplasm and around the plasma membranes of the corneal endothelium. There is an increased potential for developing corneal edema in patients with low endothelial cell counts. Caution should be used when prescribing AZOPT® (brinzolamide ophthalmic suspension) 1% to this group of patients. Severe Renal Impairment AZOPT® (brinzolamide ophthalmic suspension) 1% has not been studied in patients with severe renal impairment (CrCl < 30 mL/min). Because AZOPT® (brinzolamide ophthalmic suspension) 1% and its metabolite are excreted predominantly by the kidney, AZOPT® (brinzolamide ophthalmic suspension) 1% is not recommended in such patients. Acute Angle-Closure Glaucoma The management of patients with acute angle-closure glaucoma requires therapeutic interventions in addition to ocular hypotensive agents. AZOPT® (brinzolamide ophthalmic suspension) (brinzolamide ophthalmic suspension) 1% has not been studied in patients with acute angle-closure glaucoma. Contact Lens Wear The preservative in AZOPT® (brinzolamide ophthalmic suspension) 1%, benzalkonium chloride, may be absorbed by soft contact lenses. Contact lenses should be removed during instillation of AZOPT® (brinzolamide ophthalmic suspension) 1%, but may be reinserted 15 minutes after instillation. Nonclinical Toxicology Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility Carcinogenicity data on brinzolamide are not available. The following tests for mutagenic potential were negative: (1) in vivo mouse micronucleus assay; (2) in vivo sister chromatid exchange assay; and (3) Ames E. coli test. The in vitro mouse lymphoma forward mutation assay was negative in the absence of activation, but positive in the presence of microsomal activation. In reproduction studies of brinzolamide in rats, there were no adverse effects on the fertility or reproductive capacity of males or females at doses up to 18 mg/kg/day (375 times the recommended human ophthalmic dose). If more than one topical ophthalmic drug is being used, the drugs should be administered at least ten minutes apart. Use In Specific Populations Pregnancy Pregnancy Category C: Developmental toxicity studies with brinzolamide in rabbits at oral doses of 1, 3, and 6 mg/kg/day (20, 62, and 125 times the recommended human ophthalmic dose) produced maternal toxicity at 6 mg/kg/day and a significant increase in the number of fetal variations, such as accessory skull bones, which was only slightly higher than the historic value at 1 and 6 mg/kg. In rats, statistically decreased body weights of fetuses from dams receiving oral doses of 18 mg/kg/day (375 times the recommended human ophthalmic dose) during gestation were proportional to the reduced maternal weight gain, with no statistically significant effects on organ or tissue development. Increases in unossified sternebrae, reduced ossification of the skull, and unossified hyoid that occurred at 6 and 18 mg/kg were not statistically significant. No treatment-related malformations were seen. Following oral administration of 14C-brinzolamide to pregnant rats, radioactivity was found to cross the placenta and was present in the fetal tissues and blood. There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. AZOPT® (brinzolamide ophthalmic suspension) 1% should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus. Nursing Mothers In a study of brinzolamide in lactating rats, decreases in body weight gain in offspring at an oral dose of 15 mg/kg/day (312 times the recommended human ophthalmic dose) were seen during lactation. No other effects were observed. However, following oral administration of 14C-brinzolamide to lactating rats, radioactivity was found in milk at concentrations below those in the blood and plasma. It is not known whether this drug is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk and because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from AZOPT® (brinzolamide ophthalmic suspension) 1%, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother. Pediatric Use A three-month controlled clinical study was conducted in which AZOPT® (brinzolamide ophthalmic suspension) (brinzolamide ophthalmic suspension) 1% was dosed only twice a day in pediatric patients 4 weeks to 5 years of age. Patients were not required to discontinue their IOP-lowering medication(s) until initiation of monotherapy with AZOPT® (brinzolamide ophthalmic suspension) . IOP-lowering efficacy was not demonstrated in this study in which the mean decrease in elevated IOP was between 0 and 2 mmHg. Five out of 32 patients demonstrated an increase in corneal diameter of one millimeter. Geriatric Use No overall differences in safety or effectiveness have been observed between elderly and younger patients. Last reviewed on RxList: 4/28/2011
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

Source: http://www.rxlist.com

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