Disease: Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) in Men

    What are sexually transmitted diseases (STDs)

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are infections transmitted during sexual contact. STDs are often referred to as sexually transmitted infections (STIs). STDs can be transmitted during any type of sexual activity. Some STDs can be cured with a course of antibiotics, while others persist and are not curable. Some STDs may cause debilitating symptoms, while others may be present without causing symptoms at all. Many STDs do not cause symptoms and can be spread by infected people even when they do not have any obvious symptoms.

    Who is at risk for STDs?

    Anyone who engages in any kind of sexual activity is at risk for STDs. The only way to completely eliminate the risk of acquiring an STD is abstinence from sexual activity. The use of latex condoms during sexual contact can greatly reduce the chances of contracting many STDs, but no method is completely safe.

    The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have released a report that estimates that 20 million new STD infections occur each year. People aged 15 to 24 account for about half of those newly infected. Young men and young women are about equally affected.

    What causes STDs?

    STDs can be caused by different kinds of microorganisms, including viruses, bacteria, and parasites.

    Sexually transmitted viral infections include human papillomavirus (HPV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), herpes simplex virus (HSV), hepatitis B and C, and human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8).

    Sexually transmitted bacterial infections include syphilis, gonorrhea, and chlamydia.

    Trichomonas is an example of a sexually transmitted infection caused by a parasite. Infestations with parasitic bugs, such as lice or scabies, can also be transmitted by close contact and may be acquired during sexual activity.

    What are the signs and symptoms of STDs?

    In men, STDs can be grouped into three categories:

    • STDs that predominantly cause genital lesions (sores or abnormalities on the genital organs)
    • STDs that predominantly cause inflammation of the urethra (urethritis)
    • STDs that cause symptoms and signs throughout the body (systemic STDs)

    Some of the STDs that cause local lesions or urethritis, including gonorrhea and syphilis, can also cause damage to other organs and spread within the body if not treated.

    Depending upon the exact infection, STDs that cause genital lesions may cause genital warts, painful blisters, or ulcers. STDs that cause urethritis cause symptoms often associated with a urinary tract infection, including painful or burning sensation during urination and discharge from the urethra.

    The section below reviews the specific signs and symptoms of eight common STDs.

    List of STDs in men

    There are a variety of STDs that can affect sexually active men.

    Chlamydia

    Chlamydia is a bacterial infection that is common in young adults who are sexually active. It is caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis. Both men and women can be infected, and many of those infected do not have any symptoms. When it does cause symptoms in men, symptoms of urethritis are the most common. It can also cause infection of the epididymis and testes. Chlamydia infection can be cured with antibiotics such as azithromycin. However, reinfection can occur, especially when sex partners of an infected person are not treated.

    Gonorrhea

    Like chlamydia, gonorrhea is a bacterial infection that may not always cause signs and symptoms and can remain undiagnosed. Also similar to chlamydia, gonorrhea can cause urethritis in men, leading to burning or pain on urination and discharge from the urethra. Gonorrhea is caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae bacteria and usually causes symptoms, when present, about 4 to 8 days after infection. Gonorrhea can also cause infection in the rectum and in the throat. Moreover, it is possible for gonorrhea to spread within the body, causing symptoms like rash and joint pain. Antibiotics, such as cefixime are typically used to treat gonorrhea, although other antibiotics have also been used. Treatment is often given that is also curative for chlamydia infection, since these two infections frequently occur together.

    Trichomoniasis

    Trichomoniasis is a sexually transmitted infection caused by the Trichomonas vaginalis parasite. Most women and men who are infected do not have symptoms, and as with chlamydia and gonorrhea, may not know they are infected. When the infection does cause symptoms, it typically results in urethritis, with itching or burning and discharge from the urethra. Trichomonas infection can be cured with a single dose of antibiotic medication. Metronidazole and tinidazole are antibiotics commonly used in the treatment of trichomonas infection.

    HIV

    The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is perhaps the most feared STD. Infection with the HIV virus can occur during sexual contact, by sharing needles, or from an infected pregnant woman to her baby. The virus ultimately causes dysfunction of the body's immune system at a later time point. The average time from infection to immune suppression is 10 years. There are no specific symptoms that signal HIV infection, but some people develop fever and a flu-like illness 2 to 4 weeks after they have contracted the virus. Once immune suppression is present, serious complications like unusual infections, certain cancers, and dementia may develop. Numerous medications are available to help affected people manage the infection and delay or prevent progression of the illness.

    Genital herpes

    The herpes simplex viruses (HSVs) cause painful blistering sores on sexually-exposed areas of the body. They can be transmitted during any type of sexual contact. Typically, the HSV type 1 (HSV-1) causes cold sores around the mouth, while the HSV type 2 (HSV-2) causes genital herpes, but both types of HSV are capable of infecting the genital area. As with some other STDs, it is possible to be infected with HSV and not have symptoms, or to have very mild symptoms. Even when symptoms have occurred in the past, it is possible to transmit the infection during any time period in which symptoms are not present. The lesions caused by HSV typically take the form of painful blisters that eventually open, forming ulcers, and then crust over. In men, the sores can be found on the penis, scrotum, buttocks, anus, inside the urethra, or on the skin of the thighs. The first outbreak of HSV infection may be more severe than subsequent outbreaks and can be accompanied by fever and swollen lymph nodes.

    HSV infection is not curable and persists for life. The infection has the potential to cause an outbreak at any time, although affected people vary in terms of the number and severity of outbreaks. Antiviral medications can shorten the severity and duration of an outbreak. For people who have very frequent outbreaks, antiviral medications are often recommended as ongoing therapy to suppress the virus.

    Genital warts (HPV)

    Human papillomavirus infection (HPV) is a very common STD. Different types of HPV exist and cause different conditions. Some HPVs cause common warts that are not STDs, and other types are spread during sexual activity and cause genital warts. Still other types are the cause of precancerous chances and cancers of the cervix in women. Most people with HPV infection do not develop genital warts or cancers, and the body is often able to clear the infection on its own. It is currently believed that over 75% of sexually active people have been infected at some point in life. When HPV causes genital warts in men, the lesions appear as soft, fleshy, raised bumps on the penis or anal area. Sometimes they may be larger and take on a cauliflower-like appearance.

    There is no cure for HPV infection, but not infrequently it resolves on its own. Treatment to destroy or remove genital warts is also available. Vaccines are available for boys and girls that confer immunity to the most common HPV types.

    Hepatitis

    Hepatitis is inflammation of the liver. Hepatitis B and hepatitis C are two liver virus diseases that can be transmitted by sexual contact. Both the hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) are transmitted by contact with the blood of an infected individual or by sexual activity, similar to the HIV virus. HBV may not cause symptoms, but it causes symptoms of acute hepatitis in about 50% of infections. The primary danger with HPV infection is that around 5% of those infected progress to have long-term liver damage, or chronic hepatitis B. People with chronic hepatitis B are at increased risk for the development of liver cancer. There is a very effective vaccine available for the prevention of hepatitis B. Treatment of acute hepatitis involves supportive care and rest, although those with chronic hepatitis may be treated with interferon or antiviral medications.

    Unlike HBV, HCV is rarely transmitted by sexual contact and is usually spread by contact with the blood of an infected person. Still, it is possible to transmit this virus as a result of sexual contact. Most people infected with HCV have no symptoms, so a delayed or missed diagnosis is common. In contrast to hepatitis B, most people with HCV infection (75% to 85% of people infected) develop chronic infection with the possibility of liver damage. There is also no vaccine available against HCV.

    Syphilis

    Syphilis is a bacterial infection caused by Treponema pallidum bacteria. If not treated, the disease progresses through three phases and can also persist in a latent state. The initial manifestation is a painless ulcer known as a chancre at the site of sexual contact. The chancre develops 10 to 90 days after infection and resolves after 3 to 6 weeks. Syphilis can be treated with antibiotics, but if this first stage is untreated, secondary syphilis can develop. In secondary syphilis, there is spread of the disease to other organs, causing various symptoms that can include skin rash, swollen lymph nodes, arthritis, kidney disease, or liver problems. After this stage, some people will have a latent infection for years, after which tertiary syphilis develops. Tertiary syphilis can cause different conditions including brain infection, the development of nodules known as gummas, aortic aneurysm, loss of sight, and deafness. Fortunately, syphilis is curable with proper antibiotic treatment.

    How are STDs diagnosed?

    Many STDs are diagnosed based upon the clinical history and characteristic physical findings. Herpes and syphilis are two conditions that can produce identifiable signs and symptoms. Often the diagnosis of an infection depends upon identification of the organism. A number of different tests are available that are based either upon detection of the surface proteins of the organism or of the genetic material of the organism. These methods are more commonly used than the culture to identify sexually transmitted infections.

    What is the treatment for STDs?

    STDs caused by bacteria -- chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis -- are typically curable with antibiotics. Trichomonas infection can also be cured with effective medications that eliminate the parasite.

    Viral STDs may resolve on their own, such as HPV infection. There is no treatment for HPV infection, although it commonly does not cause problems. Genital warts can be treated by destruction and removal. HBV and, to a greater extent, HCV infections may persist and develop into chronic infection. Antiviral drugs and interferon may be used to manage these long-term infections, but they do not cure the infection. Likewise, HIV treatment drugs can manage the infection, but they do not cure the condition. HSV infection persists for life, although antiviral drugs can help reduce the severity and frequency of outbreaks.

    What are the signs and symptoms of STDs?

    In men, STDs can be grouped into three categories:

    • STDs that predominantly cause genital lesions (sores or abnormalities on the genital organs)
    • STDs that predominantly cause inflammation of the urethra (urethritis)
    • STDs that cause symptoms and signs throughout the body (systemic STDs)

    Some of the STDs that cause local lesions or urethritis, including gonorrhea and syphilis, can also cause damage to other organs and spread within the body if not treated.

    Depending upon the exact infection, STDs that cause genital lesions may cause genital warts, painful blisters, or ulcers. STDs that cause urethritis cause symptoms often associated with a urinary tract infection, including painful or burning sensation during urination and discharge from the urethra.

    The section below reviews the specific signs and symptoms of eight common STDs.

    List of STDs in men

    There are a variety of STDs that can affect sexually active men.

    Chlamydia

    Chlamydia is a bacterial infection that is common in young adults who are sexually active. It is caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis. Both men and women can be infected, and many of those infected do not have any symptoms. When it does cause symptoms in men, symptoms of urethritis are the most common. It can also cause infection of the epididymis and testes. Chlamydia infection can be cured with antibiotics such as azithromycin. However, reinfection can occur, especially when sex partners of an infected person are not treated.

    Gonorrhea

    Like chlamydia, gonorrhea is a bacterial infection that may not always cause signs and symptoms and can remain undiagnosed. Also similar to chlamydia, gonorrhea can cause urethritis in men, leading to burning or pain on urination and discharge from the urethra. Gonorrhea is caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae bacteria and usually causes symptoms, when present, about 4 to 8 days after infection. Gonorrhea can also cause infection in the rectum and in the throat. Moreover, it is possible for gonorrhea to spread within the body, causing symptoms like rash and joint pain. Antibiotics, such as cefixime are typically used to treat gonorrhea, although other antibiotics have also been used. Treatment is often given that is also curative for chlamydia infection, since these two infections frequently occur together.

    Trichomoniasis

    Trichomoniasis is a sexually transmitted infection caused by the Trichomonas vaginalis parasite. Most women and men who are infected do not have symptoms, and as with chlamydia and gonorrhea, may not know they are infected. When the infection does cause symptoms, it typically results in urethritis, with itching or burning and discharge from the urethra. Trichomonas infection can be cured with a single dose of antibiotic medication. Metronidazole and tinidazole are antibiotics commonly used in the treatment of trichomonas infection.

    HIV

    The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is perhaps the most feared STD. Infection with the HIV virus can occur during sexual contact, by sharing needles, or from an infected pregnant woman to her baby. The virus ultimately causes dysfunction of the body's immune system at a later time point. The average time from infection to immune suppression is 10 years. There are no specific symptoms that signal HIV infection, but some people develop fever and a flu-like illness 2 to 4 weeks after they have contracted the virus. Once immune suppression is present, serious complications like unusual infections, certain cancers, and dementia may develop. Numerous medications are available to help affected people manage the infection and delay or prevent progression of the illness.

    Genital herpes

    The herpes simplex viruses (HSVs) cause painful blistering sores on sexually-exposed areas of the body. They can be transmitted during any type of sexual contact. Typically, the HSV type 1 (HSV-1) causes cold sores around the mouth, while the HSV type 2 (HSV-2) causes genital herpes, but both types of HSV are capable of infecting the genital area. As with some other STDs, it is possible to be infected with HSV and not have symptoms, or to have very mild symptoms. Even when symptoms have occurred in the past, it is possible to transmit the infection during any time period in which symptoms are not present. The lesions caused by HSV typically take the form of painful blisters that eventually open, forming ulcers, and then crust over. In men, the sores can be found on the penis, scrotum, buttocks, anus, inside the urethra, or on the skin of the thighs. The first outbreak of HSV infection may be more severe than subsequent outbreaks and can be accompanied by fever and swollen lymph nodes.

    HSV infection is not curable and persists for life. The infection has the potential to cause an outbreak at any time, although affected people vary in terms of the number and severity of outbreaks. Antiviral medications can shorten the severity and duration of an outbreak. For people who have very frequent outbreaks, antiviral medications are often recommended as ongoing therapy to suppress the virus.

    Genital warts (HPV)

    Human papillomavirus infection (HPV) is a very common STD. Different types of HPV exist and cause different conditions. Some HPVs cause common warts that are not STDs, and other types are spread during sexual activity and cause genital warts. Still other types are the cause of precancerous chances and cancers of the cervix in women. Most people with HPV infection do not develop genital warts or cancers, and the body is often able to clear the infection on its own. It is currently believed that over 75% of sexually active people have been infected at some point in life. When HPV causes genital warts in men, the lesions appear as soft, fleshy, raised bumps on the penis or anal area. Sometimes they may be larger and take on a cauliflower-like appearance.

    There is no cure for HPV infection, but not infrequently it resolves on its own. Treatment to destroy or remove genital warts is also available. Vaccines are available for boys and girls that confer immunity to the most common HPV types.

    Hepatitis

    Hepatitis is inflammation of the liver. Hepatitis B and hepatitis C are two liver virus diseases that can be transmitted by sexual contact. Both the hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) are transmitted by contact with the blood of an infected individual or by sexual activity, similar to the HIV virus. HBV may not cause symptoms, but it causes symptoms of acute hepatitis in about 50% of infections. The primary danger with HPV infection is that around 5% of those infected progress to have long-term liver damage, or chronic hepatitis B. People with chronic hepatitis B are at increased risk for the development of liver cancer. There is a very effective vaccine available for the prevention of hepatitis B. Treatment of acute hepatitis involves supportive care and rest, although those with chronic hepatitis may be treated with interferon or antiviral medications.

    Unlike HBV, HCV is rarely transmitted by sexual contact and is usually spread by contact with the blood of an infected person. Still, it is possible to transmit this virus as a result of sexual contact. Most people infected with HCV have no symptoms, so a delayed or missed diagnosis is common. In contrast to hepatitis B, most people with HCV infection (75% to 85% of people infected) develop chronic infection with the possibility of liver damage. There is also no vaccine available against HCV.

    Syphilis

    Syphilis is a bacterial infection caused by Treponema pallidum bacteria. If not treated, the disease progresses through three phases and can also persist in a latent state. The initial manifestation is a painless ulcer known as a chancre at the site of sexual contact. The chancre develops 10 to 90 days after infection and resolves after 3 to 6 weeks. Syphilis can be treated with antibiotics, but if this first stage is untreated, secondary syphilis can develop. In secondary syphilis, there is spread of the disease to other organs, causing various symptoms that can include skin rash, swollen lymph nodes, arthritis, kidney disease, or liver problems. After this stage, some people will have a latent infection for years, after which tertiary syphilis develops. Tertiary syphilis can cause different conditions including brain infection, the development of nodules known as gummas, aortic aneurysm, loss of sight, and deafness. Fortunately, syphilis is curable with proper antibiotic treatment.

    How are STDs diagnosed?

    Many STDs are diagnosed based upon the clinical history and characteristic physical findings. Herpes and syphilis are two conditions that can produce identifiable signs and symptoms. Often the diagnosis of an infection depends upon identification of the organism. A number of different tests are available that are based either upon detection of the surface proteins of the organism or of the genetic material of the organism. These methods are more commonly used than the culture to identify sexually transmitted infections.

    What is the treatment for STDs?

    STDs caused by bacteria -- chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis -- are typically curable with antibiotics. Trichomonas infection can also be cured with effective medications that eliminate the parasite.

    Viral STDs may resolve on their own, such as HPV infection. There is no treatment for HPV infection, although it commonly does not cause problems. Genital warts can be treated by destruction and removal. HBV and, to a greater extent, HCV infections may persist and develop into chronic infection. Antiviral drugs and interferon may be used to manage these long-term infections, but they do not cure the infection. Likewise, HIV treatment drugs can manage the infection, but they do not cure the condition. HSV infection persists for life, although antiviral drugs can help reduce the severity and frequency of outbreaks.

    Source: http://www.rxlist.com

    There are a variety of STDs that can affect sexually active men.

    Source: http://www.rxlist.com

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